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CA (650,000)
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ENVS (500)


Environmental Studies
Course Code
ENVS 2200
Stefan Kipfer

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Global urbanization II
Last week all about Geneva, Amsterdam, top hierarchy in the world.
Colonization and urbanization
1) Colonialism- How state occupies another territory
Urban History – Colonization refers to urban settlements that are modified or
created to facilitate the colonial control.
1492: Colonization shaped by European empires (spains, France, etc)
Exceptions: Ottoman Empire and Japan
Features of modern colonization: scale, world-wide reach, European racism,
driven by merchant and full fledged capitalism since 1800s
First map shows, 1800s colonies, Spanish and Portuguese great empires
Spanish and Portuguese empires collapsed
Second map shows, Britain and France mostly owned majority of colonies
Colonization mission to Canada: military control and staples resources
Canada was staple economy – lived through primary resources fish, fur
Early towns = trade and military
2) formation of white settler colony = mass settlement
5 Key Specificities:
1) Settle cities: based on foundation of dispossession of First Nations
Dominated by Europeans majorities (even now)/ class segregation (Chinese
workers used to build railway) which turned into Chinatown, was segregated
spaces, couldn’t buy properties sin all places, couldn’t work in all occupations
except selected, Chinatown was result of how whites confounded the Chinese.
African = also confounded either through slavery or ‘little burgundy in Montréal
(black neighborhood) or Africville in North Halifax (was destroyed after ww2) =
great history of racial segregation.
2) Profound commodification: no significant pre-colonial settlements. Less fight
against British colonization because not enough great capital was built. Towns in
the west were built on speculation. When ones land is treated as a commodity, its
hard to treat it in a sustainable way.
3) -Resources form ‘hinterland’ to ‘metropolis , couldn’t become strong towns
unless they suck resources. There is negatives against Montreal and Toronto
because they monopolize resources.
4) Canada industrialized late and weakly, mass urbanization was delayed compared
to USA.
-Montreal= very important financial not only industrial
5) Canadian cities are more difficult from their American counterparts.
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