ENVS 3710 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Biotope, Soil Texture, Water Cycle

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Environmental Studies
Course
ENVS 3710
Professor
Review of ecological principles and concepts
-looking at many landscapes within one; not just based one specific type of landscape
Physical environment climate
- Organisms relationships with one another; and a relationship within their own physical
environment
- Ecosystem: living part (biome); non living (biotope)
- Climate: more than just weather; compose of number of things (interdependent) eg.
Temperature, light, moisture ... etc (create climate)
- Img: tropical rainforest in Costa Reaca the fog is generated by the trees, put out moisture by
the trees
Soil
- Building material; ecologist: living
- Define relationship each other: the plants define the soil and the soil define the plant optimize
the plant and soil
- Soil originate through wind, water erosion, cracking of rocks
- Profile: take a section of soil (look at what is going on), “bands” characteristics of vegetation
on top of the soil, processes of weather breaking down material (porosity poorest to water,
compacted soil poor water movement through it)
- Reactivity: major impact on nutrients in the soil; fertility (how much living matter can occur
within a specific area); water might be there but not accessible to plants
- Moisture: pattern (what could survive within an ecosystem)
- Img: soil pyramid (refers to the texture of the soil); 3 way kind of chart; Clay is finest sand is
the less finest *loam (soil texture not organic matter half way blend between silt [nutrient
rich] and sand [depiction of nutrients])
- *farmers love loam in agriculture
Aquatic biotopes Hydrological Cycle (how water behaves within an aquatic ecosystem)
- Precipitation how they preserve water? Temperature (influence the hydrological cycle)
- Surface runoff water that runs over the ground
- Subsurface flow water that runs underground; does not have to flow the same pattern as
surface runoff (problem in urban centers)
- Evaporation getting water back from the ground and large bodies of water back into the air
- Evapotranspiration combined effects of evaporation from large bodies of water and plants
(cooling themselves)
- Energy influences energy’s is what drives ecosystems, eg. Sunlight (drives everything including
your car)
- oceans important because they have water, but they also absorb heat, different parts of the
ocean absorbs heats and carbon dioxide (major issues); creating ocean shifts
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- Topography micro climates; determine when soil slide or stay static
Population Growths
- Dynamics of population either increase or decrease
- Density how many species within a specific area
- Cover - how much areal cover (space coverage) do they have?
- Biomass the amount of living matter within the system; the weight of everything
- Dispersion how do populations move around? Plants how does the seeds get distributed
around the environment
- Survivorship not everything that sheds survive; a minimum number of species that would pass
on into the future
- Age distribution younger plants: help further the population of a specific species; difference
between how long a species would last without younger population
o Example: the black oats in high park; all about the same age, not reproducing to well,
might disappear
o Example: need at least 300 people to breeding; less than that would cause interbreeding
causing problems
- Intrinsic rate of increase without interference, how many individuals enter the population and
goes into adulthood have their off springs
- Environmental resistance environment pushing back on the species; causes establishment
within a specific area
- Carrying capacity classical economics: this does not apply to human beings (get around this
because of technological advancement); an environment or ecosystem that can support a
specific number of species
Population inter species interaction: competition
- Specific patterns: interspecies competition (animals and plants)
Population inter species interactions: herbivary
- Eating a plant by an animal
- Herbivore
Population inter species interactions: predation
- Killing a herbivore by a predator
- Example: the lady bug
Population inter species interaction
- One organism benefits while the other loses
- Parasitism rarely kills the host, often leach off them
- Symbiosis relationship, both parties benefit; not ambulatory (live independent)
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Document Summary

Looking at many landscapes within one; not just based one specific type of landscape. Organisms relationships with one another; and a relationship within their own physical environment. Ecosystem: living part (biome); non living (biotope) Climate: more than just weather; compose of number of things (interdependent) eg. temperature, light, moisture etc (create climate) Img: tropical rainforest in costa reaca the fog is generated by the trees, put out moisture by the trees. Define relationship each other: the plants define the soil and the soil define the plant optimize the plant and soil. Soil originate through wind, water erosion, cracking of rocks. Reactivity: major impact on nutrients in the soil; fertility (how much living matter can occur within a specific area); water might be there but not accessible to plants. Moisture: pattern (what could survive within an ecosystem) Aquatic biotopes hydrological cycle (how water behaves within an aquatic ecosystem) Surface runoff water that runs over the ground.

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