# ESSE 3600 Lecture Notes - Georeferencing, Arcgis, Second Order (Religious)

by

School

York UniversityDepartment

Earth, Space Science and EngineeringCourse Code

ESSE 3600Professor

Sohn Lab 3-Image Georeferencing and Data Collection

Introduction

In Lab 3, students were introduced to image georeferencing and data

collection. The purpose of this exercise was to become familiar with the co-

registration process between image data and map vector data using

digitization. Since there was no alignment between image features and map

features, the map had to be rectified by selecting control points.

At first, the data was auto-adjusted using the georeferencing toolbar in

ArcGIS. The vector data was loaded onto the map, and they were two

separate shapefiles. Since the alignment between the map data and the

vector data was not 100% identical, an attempt was made to select fifteen

control points and then fix the vector alignment with the map data. Fifteen

control points were selected and then saved in a View Link table that

contained information about X and Y coordinates, in order to determine the

minimum number of points required for polynomial transformation.

First Order Polynomial Transformation

The equation to determine the minimum number of points for first order

polynomial transformation is as follows:

Equation 1

n=# of control points

To determine the number of control points,

control points=(n+1)(n+2)/2

For a first order polynomial this is,

control points=(1+1)(1+2)/2=(2*3)/2=3

According to the equation, 3 points are required for first order polynomial

transformation.

Second Order Polynomial Transformation

Equation 2

n=# of control points

To determine the number of control points,

control points=(n+1)(n+2)/2

For a second order polynomial this is,

control points=(2+1)(2+2)/2=(3*4)/2=6

According to the equation, 6 points are required for second order polynomial

transformation.

Third Order Polynomial Transformation

Equation 3

n=# of control points

To determine the number of control points,

control points=(n+1)(n+2)/2

For a third order polynomial this is,

control points=(3+1)(3+2)/2=(4*5)/2=10

According to the equation, 10 points are required for first order polynomial

transformation.

RMS Error

The RMS error is the root-mean-squared error of the residual errors. It takes

an average of all the residual errors in the given data. The given data is

shown below in link tables. There were fifteen control points selected.

First Order Polynomial Transformation

Here, RMS is 12.81752. This is highly inaccurate and shows a large error

margin.

Second Order Polynomial Transformation

Here, RMS is 11.4963. This is highly inaccurate and shows a large error

margin, though it is slightly more accurate than the first order

transformation.

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###### Document Summary

In lab 3, students were introduced to image georeferencing and data collection. The purpose of this exercise was to become familiar with the co- registration process between image data and map vector data using digitization. Since there was no alignment between image features and map features, the map had to be rectified by selecting control points. At first, the data was auto-adjusted using the georeferencing toolbar in. The vector data was loaded onto the map, and they were two separate shapefiles. Since the alignment between the map data and the vector data was not 100% identical, an attempt was made to select fifteen control points and then fix the vector alignment with the map data. Fifteen control points were selected and then saved in a view link table that contained information about x and y coordinates, in order to determine the minimum number of points required for polynomial transformation.

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