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North America.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1000
Professor
Valerie Preston
Semester
Fall

Description
Making Nations: Migration In North America 10/2/2013 6:34:00 AM The Promise of Migration – only applies to some **  Give me your tired, your poor Determinants of Migration Geographies  Push factors – poverty, deprivation, persecution  Pull factors – economic opportunities, social contacts (where friends and family are), political climate  History of migration - Shapes where we go, when we go, who gets to go - Lays down layers of relationships - Ex: Canadian universities have large number of international students from Hong Kong, as a result of previous histories of migration and political relationships  State Policies and Regulations – who could migrate, who was encouraged to migrate - Not just about who is admitted but rather how they are treated once they get there  Technology – allows us to rapidly go around the globe - Makes movement faster - Changes the way we communicate - Changes the resources available where you are living or where you want to migrate to – had a tremendous impact to migration into N.A. Population of North America  Over 90% are migrants or descendant of migrants  Some have migrated themselves - Canada about 1 in 5 - US closer to 15%  Depending on where you are in the US you will meet people with different ties to migration - In the big cities you will meet people who are foreign born - In the center you will meet people: a few migrants (non-European background), grandchildren of foreign born who have come to take on th th th jobs, 8 ,9 ,10 generation in the US (their families came at the beginning of European settlements and continued to move west) Early Settlement  Prior to 1660 Europeans came to NA but didn’t stay long - Traders - Fishers - Explorers  Hope was to find masses of gold  Permanent settlements didn’t begin til 1600s – 1750  During this period both France and Britain used their colonies in NA as safety bells  Protestants were sent to Quebec and Acadia  Only few colonies that were started by “acceptable members of societies”  By 1750 there was permanent settlement – but was limited and isolated  In 1750 people start arriving in larger numbers  1750 the world starts to change: Settler society 1750 - 1850 - technology begins in the UN - beginnings of small industry - settler society - goal for Britain was to settle NA and create replicas of British society - emphasize migration as part of national identity - conflicts of Indigenous people – lots of treaty making - Famine ships came - Irish Pheasants also came - The period where approx. 450 thousand Africans were brought as slaves to NA before 1807 in Georgia and south Carolina to work on rice fields and tobacco, expanded into southern US - People moved around (“The Loyalists”); 1776 during the revolutionary war until the end of The War of 1812 - Irish were viewed as “sub-human” who were only good for labour - African Americans came as slaves and were treated terribly - Political conflicts - At the end of the period, people had moved in large numbers across the Mississippi river  Settlement of The West 1850 – 1920 - the region was settled from coast to coast - “real settlement” occurred during this period - Canada recruited people from eastern and central Europe (used to the Canadian environment) - The governments offered free land for people to come to Canada and US - you had to cultivate and build housing in order to keep your free land - there was an increasing number of African Americans who moved out of the south – the move came later to go north for two reasons: industrial resolutions provided jobs in the north for African Americans, the train across the US is finish 1860s (new technology for movement) – new opportunities and new ways to get there - the end of the 1800s marks the point when Canada and US start to explicitly restrict entry - In US until 1917 you could cross the boarder very easily - 1917 Immigration Act– excluded Asians, fees (you had to pay to enter), literacy test - National Origins Act 1924 – they set a quota for immigrants - Canada: Head tax 1885 after the railroad was finished, Continuous Passage 1908 you had to come continuously on a ship, Chinese Exclusion 1923, in 1930 only affluent British immigrants who could buy a farm  Postwar: 1946 – 2000 - Could only come if they were under one of the three reasons - if they were refuges fleeing persecution who could not go home - if they had families already here - if they had contributed to the economy - removed racial, ethnic, religious, and national origin biases - until about 1980 migration was into cities - civil rights movement allowed Africans to go south 10/2/2013 6:34:00 AM Migration to North America  Exploration by Europeans  Permanent settlement 1650-1750 th - 13 colonies of US - Colonies of Canada  Pioneers 1750-1850 - British Government is egger to have people living in NA - Moving down eastern coast - African Americans come as slaves – ends in 1807 - Some of Hispanic population were also slaves until1750  Settling in the west 1850-1920 - Rapid migration – mostly European, people from Britain and Northern Europe, southern and central Europe - Reasons… i) Enclosures in Europe - iiIndustrial Revolution – needs workers (jobs); gov. provide free land - History of Migration – most already have family members in Canada - Technology – finished railroad - Governments welcoming immigrants - 1863 African Americans are free - 1910s beginings of small movement of African A out of the south - 1920-1945 period of  Era of restrictions 1920-1945 - Immigration law 1917 restricts people coming into the country; ban chinese migration; impossible for inidians Pakistani; only people legally are british origin to buy a business or farm; keep out jews as they try to flee upcoming holocaust; AA suffered discrimination th  20 century migration regime 1946-2000 - Liberalized immigration removed racial restriction; seeing people outside of british origin - Immigrants moved to cities: i.e., Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver - African Americans moved west and then south; Cali. Booms after WWII - Go south because of the civil rights movement - Hispanics continue to come across US/Mexican boarder - Number of Hispanics increase after WWII - Composition of immigrants changes – started from Europeans until after 1970 largest group from Latin America and Asia (US); Canada mostly from Asia 9/11 At The Boarder  Canadian boarder stayed open for people returning to NA  For everyone else, the boarder was closed  No airplanes in the sky for 4 days  Three important changes in state regulation 1. Americans started enforcing their boarder - Until 2012 American officials have said that 9/11 perpetrators came across the Canadian boarder; but they have came legally across the US - Increased boarder agents - Outcome: Spending a lot of money - Canadian Boarder Enforcement: increase spending, RCMP started sharing information with the US (Maher Arar), Security Certificates 2. Revised Legislation - USA: Patiriot Act – search without notice (November 2001), allows government to collect and store information, expands definition of terrorism to include the activities of many activists No Immigration legislation - Canada: Anti-terrorism Act Safe Third Country Imigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA,2002) separtates immigration into two parts: immigrants for economic reasons, and refugees - immigration is more complicated 3. Fortress North America - Perimeter Secturity - they want to create a perimeter around Canada and US to keep out people and facilitate the goods between the two countries - address threats early - Regulatory Cooperation Council - facilitate trade - regulations in both countries compatible and less burdensome 4. Changing Boarder - push out boarder - internalize boarder (boarder has also been pushed in) - border is everywhere  Most population in Canada is along the 49 thparallel Idle No More: Aboriginal Protests & Claims 10/2/2013 6:34:00 AM Multiculturalism Criticism… 1. Allows minorities to segregate their identities (not a lot of evidence for this criticism) 2. Doesn’t achieve equity: Minorities are not doing well on the Canadian economy; minorities have to work for more than 10 years to earn same income 3. Tends to freeze ethic identities and practices Idle No More  A social movement  Began with a teach-in by 4 First-Nations women in Saskatchewan  Two goals: - Wants the federal government to repeal all legislation between First nations and Canada that violates treaties - Empower aboriginals to regain independence and sovereignty  Non-violent  Now international  About the present and future  Focused on improving the lives of aboriginal peoples currently and for their children in the future  Tribal Distributions at Time of Contact - British and French viewed Canada as empty land: “terra-nullius” - Entire land area was occupied by sophisticated societies - History of European Contact is horrific Nation to Nation Agreements Royal proclamation th  October 7  Set out guidelines for European settlement  Attempt by British to claim N.A after the European war  Effort at colonization, it explicitly recognizes aboriginal lands, all land would be considered aboriginal until claimed by territory  Only state could buy land  Put British government between aboriginal peoples and settlers  Important to movement because it says aboriginal peoples have a claim to the land of Canada Treaties  Agreements  Short, few pages  Very concrete, they set guidelines  Some first nations didn’t sign treaties - In BC most didn’t sign, however Supreme Court says proclamation exceeds treaties therefore they still have agreements over the land Indian Act  1873  Simulate the First nations  Set up the pass system, gave First Nations rights  Set aside reserves where they were required to live and work  Defined who was a first nation, on the basis of blood (if your father was a first nation, you were a first nation; if a woman married a man of a diff. tribe she lost her place on her tribe; widow you lost all rights; marry non- Indian you lost all rights)  Registered First Nation  Non-Registered First Nations: claim identity but no longer identified as first nations because they lost their rights  1985: registered first nations can live off of reserves, address gender inequities  Controversial: it is an act of colonization and repression, but others want to keep it to confirm first nations hold a unique status under Canadian Law School Scoops and Residential Schools  Used to educate aboriginal  Children were sent involuntarily, they were abused  Many did not speak English  Punished for speaking their own languages, not allowed to follow first nation practices  Aim was to “destroy the Indian” Why Idle No More Now?  Abysmal Social Conditions of First Nations - Half First Nations live in cities - Regardless, they have low life expectancy - Like Inuit, First Nations have poor education and income qualities - Urban First Nations are much better educated and slightly higher income  Failed Negotiations - Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996; as a result of conflict; Canadian Government needs to spend money to bring them to the same level to rescue their poor living conditions - Kelowna Accord, 2005 - Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Ongoing; consult residential school survivors and make the data public  Recent Political and Economic Initiatives - Recent legislations: reduces environmental protection, imposes rules on aboriginal governance - Recent economic initiatives: Northern Gateway (pipeline project to take oil sands oil across BC to Asia; to increase market outside the US)  Idle No More allows… - First Nations to have alliances - Land is central to aboriginal land claims and to F.N and other aboriginal identities - Land is seen as threatened by climate change and resource exploitation Enduring Legacies of Racism: Geographies of Poverty 10/2/2013 6:34:00 AM Poverty In the US  Heightened in southern, rural US  Coastal has lower child poverty  Canada lower poverty than much of the US Poverty Measures  Economic deprivation  Based on low income households in 1955  Minimum food costs multiplied by three – - Nutritionally adequate diet - Minimal fresh food  Same across USA  Only inflated since 1955  Debated/criticized - Criticized living across the US - Assumes nuclear family – doesn’t adjust single people have to own one apartment - Minimal standard of living – no money here for sports, transportation, luxury gifts  Poverty rates have increased steadily in the US – more people living in poverty today than before  Similar in terms of social policies – - Gov. only steps in only when family or market failure – - Known as Anglophones – UK, Italy, Ireland, united states - Results in minimal services and income for people  Chances of being poor depend on who you are, chances were 3x higher for African Americans, 26% higher for Hispanics - Includes historic black belt  Where you live matters - States administer the programs for poor people - Fastest way to get poor is reliance on the gov. Geographies of poverty  Louisiana and Mississippi have the highest rates  Wisconsin have lowest rates, but increasing – comes close to US average but does not meet, lower poverty rate than nation as a whole - Although has a low rate of poverty, the governor in the state has removed pensions in the Winter of 2010 - Since 2008 job loss - Employment declined by 3% in two best paying jobs: manufacturing and trades/transportation (offer career advancement) - Increase in part-time work – no benefits State Policies - Strong health care policies – introduced unemployment insurance - Innovative welfare – expanding welfare state - Workers compensation began in Wisconsin - Expanded programs for children and adults living in poverty – one of the best programs - Use state money towards education spending - Pay higher tax; receive half from income tax (Texas gets all taxes from sales tax not income taxes) Minorities - White population – not a large minority population - Minimal immigrants - Minorities have higher chance of living below poverty line Poverty Within States  Wisconsin, 13%  Urban: Milwaukee Country (largest municipality) 22%  Poverty is higher where population is less education, minority pop is concentrated, people have less jobs Deindustrialization In Milwaukee  Converted factories into condos  Poverty increased  Most segregated area in US – metropolitan area  Black population experienced spacial mismatch - Jobs moved to sub-burbs - Minorities in the center couldn’t commute to those jobs - Minority population have higher poverty rate and couldn’t afford suburban housing - Discrimination – campaigns to get them to move to metropolitan area - Exclusion across generation - Dependence on state Determinants of poverty  Consistent pattern  Four factors: 1. Number and types of jobs 2. Age and family characteristics - Older/minority dominated have lower poverty rates - Family type matters: married people have lower poverty rates 3. State policies - States have control over programs to support poor people - Obama Care – low income people have access to health insurance; people below and just slightly above the poverty line 4. Minority populations Detroit: From Motor City to Detropia 10/2/2013 6:34:00 AM Detroit – wages  1960 highest income in all of the US  Cut down wages – “livable wages”  They feel they need to do it to keep Detroit “vibrant” Detroit – hoping to represent the future Building Manufacturing Regio
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