Oil & water can contribute to conlict: oil & water do not, in isolaion, cause conlict. Uneven distribuion of oil in the middle east. Immensely beneited from selling oil around the world. Conlict and economic tensions: due to uneven share of oil wealth. Control of oil by foreign companies, resistance, & the creaion of opec* Legacy of colonialism in the middle east: briish and americans were controlling the oil in iran. *oil petroleum exporing company (opec) consists of iran and other oil exporing countries. Briish lose control over the oil companies in iran. Middle east and north africa has a scarcity of water. Long history in the region: oasis (pockets of fresh water) in the dade valley, morocco. Expanding setlement & agriculture: tapping aquifers (underground fresh water lakes) ex. Irrigated alfalfa ields, saudi arabia: building dams (hydroelectric power) Salinizaion (soil becoming salty making it hard for agriculture) Alternaives: virtual water , desalinaion & reusing waste water ex.