# GEOG 1400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Ultraviolet, Sea Salt, Types Of Volcanic Eruptions

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AP GEOG 1400 – LECTURE NOTES #2 (Sept. 17th, 2015)

Global Energy System I

Solar Radiation

- Top of atmosphere – 1370WM2 (solar constant)

- 1370WM2 is flow of energy is steady

- Many varieties of Radiant energy or electromagnetic energy

oClassify it as electromagnetic spectrum

How tot measure wavelength?

- Comes in small amounts

- Measurement unit: m

- Rate at which body emits radiation is function of its temperature

oHigher the temperature, higher the rate of emission

- Sun: 5800 degrees or 6073 degrees Celsius, peak intensity is in visible spectrum

- Earth – infrared spectrum

Radiation at the Top of Atmosphere or Insolation

- Ic = 1o cos

- Ic o = Insolation (WM-2)

- Cos = cosine of zenith angle

- I o = Solar constant (1370 WM-2)

Cos = sin (lat.) x sin (declination) + cos (latitude) cos (declination) x cos (hr angle)

- Declination – tire of year (date) – there is only 1 at which noon sun angle is vertical to

Earth surface that latitude is called Declination of Sun?

oDeclination change – 1/U of degree of latitude/day?

- Migrates back and forth across tropics

o235 N – June 20-22 S.S?

o23.5 S – December 20-22 W.S?

- H.A – Tire of day

12-hx15

12-11x15= 15

Insolation Calculation

- Cos = sin (45o) x sin (23.5o) + cos (45o) x cos (23.5o)?

Cos (15o) = 0.91

- Ic = 1370 WM-2 x 0.91 = 1247 WM-2

3 Important Factors

- Absorption and reflection of atmosphere

- Directioness of angle

- Daily duration of daylight

Atmosphere

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