# GEOG 1400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Ultraviolet, Sea Salt, Types Of Volcanic Eruptions

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9 Aug 2016
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AP GEOG 1400 – LECTURE NOTES #2 (Sept. 17th, 2015)
Global Energy System I
- Top of atmosphere – 1370WM2 (solar constant)
- 1370WM2 is flow of energy is steady
- Many varieties of Radiant energy or electromagnetic energy
oClassify it as electromagnetic spectrum
How tot measure wavelength?
- Comes in small amounts
- Measurement unit: m
- Rate at which body emits radiation is function of its temperature
oHigher the temperature, higher the rate of emission
- Sun: 5800 degrees or 6073 degrees Celsius, peak intensity is in visible spectrum
- Earth – infrared spectrum
Radiation at the Top of Atmosphere or Insolation
- Ic  = 1o cos 
- Ic o = Insolation (WM-2)
- Cos  = cosine of zenith angle
- I o = Solar constant (1370 WM-2)
Cos  = sin (lat.) x sin (declination) + cos (latitude) cos (declination) x cos (hr angle)
- Declination – tire of year (date) – there is only 1 at which noon sun angle is vertical to
Earth surface that latitude is called Declination of Sun?
oDeclination change – 1/U of degree of latitude/day?
- Migrates back and forth across tropics
o235 N – June 20-22 S.S?
o23.5 S – December 20-22 W.S?
- H.A – Tire of day
12-hx15
12-11x15= 15
Insolation Calculation
- Cos  = sin (45o) x sin (23.5o) + cos (45o) x cos (23.5o)?
Cos (15o) = 0.91
- Ic = 1370 WM-2 x 0.91 = 1247 WM-2
3 Important Factors
- Absorption and reflection of atmosphere
- Directioness of angle
- Daily duration of daylight
Atmosphere
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