GEOG 1400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 33: Basal Sliding, Laurentide Ice Sheet, Franz Josef Glacier

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9 Aug 2016
Geog 1400 – Jan. 7th
Stratification/Water Movement Within Lakes (Last class)
- Different layers, top is warmer, bottom is colder. Highest density at the bottom, lower at
the top.
- Epilimnion: Top Layer of warm water.
- Hypolumnion: High density
- Thermocline: Temperature changes more rapidly in between the top and bottom layer.
- In winter everything switches. So the warm part is at the bottom, cool part at the top.
- The wind will trigger mixing of the lake, strong mixing and the top will get colder.
- This tends to be more specific in larger lakes.
- Alpine glacier, google image. At the bottom is the valley and lots of debris. Downslope,
valley glacier.
- Rivers and glaciers the two most significant.
8. Glacier formation and movement
- Today just about formation and movement.
a) Glaciers – Intro
- Three categories:
Past continental ice sheets.
Current major ice sheets.
Valley glaciers.
- Over the geological time there have been many glaciations. About 15000 years ago there
was a huge glacier covering a big part of North America and Europe.
- If you are in a zone that was once glaciated there are usually a lot of debris, and things
that was created during that time.
- That ice sheet was referred to as the Laurentide Ice Sheet.
- This was the last glaciation.
Maximum Glaciations North America
- Area covered by the Laurentide ice sheet.
- Plastic because the glaciation deforms, moves and changes shape.
Ice Growth
- How does this work?
- Accumulation of snow happens, you have compaction of the snow layers, the
consequence is that there is change in density, light or heavy. The density of the snow
varies between temperatures and distance, etc.
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