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Lecture

Geo 1410 lecture sept 28.docx

40 Pages
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Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1410
Professor
Raju Das

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Geo 1410 lecture sept 28 Population keywords and mythsWhat will the carrying capacity of the world beWhat is the maximum support for a group of speciesHow much energy will we consume How we change our material lifestylePopulation densityNorth America and Europe together have same population as AfricaAlthough more concentrated than Africa India and Europe high population densityAbsolute and population densityKey variables o Fertility rates replacement rate 21 o Crude birth rates births per 1000highest in Africa higher in global south then northo Natural increases crude birth ratecrude death rate o Death rates also higher in Africao Infant mortality rates o Life expectancyincreased rapidly in last century but at a halto Epidemics hivaids Urban transitiono Cities efficient uses of space where people live in smaller units and share resources o Metropolitizationo Spaces and geographical patterns must also be notedThomas Malthuso Theories challenged by early political economists technological innovation and demographic transition processeso Neomalthusians emphasize epidemics environmental degradation and conflict in terms of population pressureso Pre mature death inevitableo People grow geometrically and food grows arithmeticallyo Lack of food will lead to decrease in population o Carl marx was a critic of him he thought all the problems can be solved by redistribution of resourcesthese are political and economic problems Demographic transition modelo 5 stages that a population growth pattern goes througho Stable high birth or death rates lowo High birth rate but low death rate o Slow expansion rapid decline in births urbanization o Stabilizationstable death rate little change in birth ratetho 5 phase cultural reasons for baby boom Asian and Latin american countries o People stop having babies and they cannot be replaced o Eastern European countries state wanted people to have babiesPopulation pyramido Age sex pyramid o 3 cohorts 015 1564 65 o Dependency ratio a measure of old peopleyoung people divided by total population o Ratios arent always exacto We can debate the socially constructed variables Canadas changing population o Expansionary growingo Restrictive inverse triangle a lot of older peopleo Stationary peak in the middleBig regional variationo Quebec had a big expanding populationdue to cultural factorsrevenge of the cradle keep French aliveo Lowest birth rates in Canadagovernment encourages baby bonuso Fully funds fertility treatments Toronto age sex pyramido Stationary age pyramidvery stable o Elliot lake is restrictive nothing to do so they dipo Advertises as a retirement communityo Nunavut expansionary pyramida lot of younger cohorts high birth rates in aboriginal communities Urbanizationo Canada rapidly urbanizingo Toronto Calgary Vancouver Edmonton Oshawa5 fastest growing cities in Canadao Sudbury Kingston saint johnthunder bay Saguenayslowest growingrdOctober 3 2011 migration theory Populations move migration inhibits population growthIn Canada migration is crucialPopulation would die without it Sustains population growth Us does have a growing population while western and northern Europe are In decline Growing population is a sign of health The state encourages people to move abroad PhilippinesInternal migrationNorthern countries are in the northNet losers tend to be around the equator Migrant stockPeople in countries where they were not born200000000 is the total migrant stock Migration is a global experience its a way of being North American has a dyesporic populationYou should never kill dead capital using homes for productive use Only way of reducing demand in the housing market is to tear houses downOutward migration changes the landscape of the cityTypes of voluntary migration International versus internalChaino Is a type of migration one person leads the way for a small group then others follow their example Reunification o Families are reunited people bring their families to the country of their work Return o People coming back to their original country after a yearafter working and raising their families o Problems with pensionsTemporary or cyclical o Fastest growingo Migrants that are going back and fourth for work o Largely from Caribbean and mexico o Seasonal work o Usually 8 monthso End of contract return to country or origin o Citizenship rights are being brought up Is it really voluntary or is it structural Canada is giving out visas to temp and perm workersForced migration and displaced personsMost forced migrants just over their own boarders Around 42 million people are currently misplaced Half of them are refugees and the rest are internally displaced Third world holds 80 percent of third worlds displaced populations Pakistan Syria Iran Germany Iraq Afghanistan
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