FALL 2013 GEOG 2420: Chapter 1 – Intro
2 main areas of statistics
− Descriptive statistics: the collection, organization, summarization & presentation of data
− Inferential statistics: generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations &
hypotheses tests, determining relationships among variables, making predictions. Uses
Population: all subjects being studied
Sample: a group of subjects selected from a population. If properly selected, can represent a population
for a study or analysis.
Hypothesis testing:An area of inferential statistics.Adecision making process for evaluating claims
about a population, based on samples.
− Ratio data: equal increments that divide and have a true zero (ex: distance in m)
− Interval data: equal increments that don't divide and don't have a true zero (ex: temperature in
− Ordinal data: ordered, but no equal increments (ex: good, better, best)