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GWST 3510 (20)
Jan Kainer (20)
Lecture 12

GWST 3510 Lecture 12: January 11

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Gender and Women's Studies
GWST 3510
Jan Kainer

-provides a synopsis of the issues that characterize globalization -how is globalization gendered? -gendered global labour markets a) Global production-value chains -parallels global commodity chains -household work is being outsourced -internationalization of production and care work -global chain emerged as a consequence of global production -capitalism economy is affecting what is being done at the point of production in paid employment b) Global care chains-migration; sex trade -workers are hired to fill what is regarded as the care gap -we see the coordination of new industries and global care markets -service work (e.g. retail): women’s work in service occupations: they are inserted into the retail economy: almost all service work is highly feminized, racialized, etc. -precarious work -sex discrimination/sexual harassment: women are hired mostly on their caring capacity -gendered occupations -temporary contract positions, part-time work, etc. -the labour protections for workers in the global economy are very weak -they are the source of inexpensive labour -gender-specific implications of economic restructuring and capitalist globalization -are women treated equitably in global labour markets? -contradictions between production and reproduction: tension and conflict between a series of production and reproduction -what is apparent is that reproductive work is devalued in practice and theoretical terms -a feature of globalization is the incompatibility between the two -fulfill traditional roles -expand on these themes of the conflict between production and reproduction -gendered citizenship in migration, class relations under capitalism -we situate these concepts within the context of neoliberal globalization Globalization: -3 components of globalization according to Steve Williams’ intro Globalization & Work) -a process, project, and practice: 1) Globalization as a process: economic processes -the ways in which the global economy is organized -he emphasizes in globalization as a process: the importance of capital mobility, a driver of globalization and a key underlying factor of globalization -capital mobility: meeting capital mobility across borders: this is a starting point of globalization, as it unleashed the forces of economic globalization -economic globalization: having the ability to move capital across borders -capital mobility is key to globalization because it allows the flow of money and capital circulated and invested around the world -in the post-WWII period, up until the 1970s, economies were much more focused on national economies and there were rules and regulations about not allowing the free flow of capital -when inflation started to increase, keynesian welfare state became questioned as a model, the rules of the game began to change, and thus, capital mobility became a fact of life and made it easier for nation-states to move money around the world: this unleashed the development of capitalist globalization -capital controls were removed to allow businesses to invest outside their global economy, which marked the beginning of globalization -the ability of businesses to move capital outside their economy was footloose capitalism: -if businesses refused the rational, they can move their businesses elsewhere -if labour protections are not enhanced and improved, they will move their businesses elsewhere -capital mobility is critical to understanding globalization because it established 2 other economic developments: internationalization of production and global finance a) global finance: internationalization of finance commissions, financial institutions, the growth of finance speculation, the development of new financial investment instruments (derivatives) in trading of national currencies: financial globalization changed the way finance institutions of banks operate and how financial investments are made: a turning point in terms of globalization -with respect to speculation, there is currency speculation in global economy: finance traders speculate the value of currencies and buy and sell currencies for earnings/profit -traders also speculate in range of goods and not merely currency -decision-making around these kinds of investments is highly complicated -the investments are made very quickly: everything is so much faster and more special at this time -the consequence of global finance has been greater instability in finance markets -finance institutions failed in the US, went bankrupt -there hasn’t been enough response to the 2008 crisis in relation to controls of finance markets -what happened in the evaluation of subprime mortgages and the 2008 crisis spread to Europe and other parts of the world -globalization of finance is an important dimension of globalization processes b) free trade: as another dimension of global capitalism, trade liberalization has been supported by neoliberal governments around the world: US and Britain began trade liberalization and other countries followed -encourage manufacturing growth, a similar promise of the growth of jobs was made in US and Mexico -trade liberalization is touted as a good policy for nation-states because it is argued that economies will prosper if they follow an export-led predominant method -a strategy of extracting goods to other countries based an imperative advantage -cheap labour is an imperative advantage for some countries -good climate for growing food is considered an imperative advantage -less-affluent countries in the world are encouraged to promote exports as a means of growing their economies -free-trade or trade liberalization is an official policy -these global institutions require countries that receive financial assistance from the IMF and receive loans to implement export-led development strategies -more trade agreements have been negotiated among nations: it is believed that that is the only way to expand and allow economies to grow -countries have voluntary assigned on trade agreements with trade rules that reduce the ability of nation-states to control their domestic economies, with the result that economic nationalism has diminished since the 1970s -governments continue to support global capital through trade agreements: TPP (Canada supports it, but the US does not) -Donald Trump does not support trade liberalization: repeal NAFTA: questions the benefits
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