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GWST 3510 (20)
Jan Kainer (20)
Lecture 13

GWST 3510 Lecture 13: January 18

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York University
Gender and Women's Studies
GWST 3510
Jan Kainer

-feminists who study globalization argue that mainstream theories ignore gender as an analytical category, in which gender is absent in most discussions (still the case today even despite the greater awareness of these issues) -gender is profoundly important in explaining power dynamics -globalization processes are not gender-neutral, but are rather shaped by gender ideologies and hierarchies operating within these institutions and broader society -what constitutes a gendered perspective on globalization? This is required in addressing equalities -the fact that gender is ignored has implications -feminists argue that we must look at globalization processes from a gendered lens -how is globalization conceptualized? -identifies the components of globalization -globalization consists of 3 components (last week’s lecture) -feminists respond to globalization processes and mainstream literature as it is not seen from a feminist perspective -neoliberalism informs policies such as free trade and engage in social program -capital mobility was the starting point for globalization as it allowed the flow of money and capital: businesses could invest in countries outside their economies (global scale) -commodity chains grew out of the ability of corporations to invest worldwide -when capital controls which existed in the post war period was removed, and in the 1970s rules began to change, this marked the beginning of globalization -global finance works in tandem with finance institutions -raise capital and funds in new ways: through the development of new investment instruments that allows corporations to raise money -international production, subcontracting chains, finance, etc. 3rd Component: -trade liberalism: global trade agreements opened up the exchange of goods and services, but in ways that benefit developed countries in the world ^-it isn’t necessarily there: wealthy nations take advantage of trade -poorer countries have to export to the wealthy countries -these 3 components of globalization are understood in a gendered lens -the authors argued that globalization processes produce gendered effects: their argument is that without taking into account gender, theories of globalization miss a vital component of how globalization actually operates, that its processes affect both men and women both at the local, regional, and international level -they suggest that gender affects accesses to resources: the social construction of gender affects their work -gender determines the allocation of reproductive work in households -gender is embedded in ideologies that affect global institutions -their main argument is that gender is inherent in much of the logics of globalization, market logic, and the logic of transnational corporations is infused with gendered assumptions -the authors break down how the globalization processes are gendered by analyzing the macro processes of trade, production finance, and the gendered micro processes through the analyses of market-produced networks, which are feminized labour markets for businesses -pp.18: Gendered Effects: -”effects of gender of globalization on the gendered division of labour a both macro and micro levels...” -we will be discussing export-led production and manufacturing global chains -then we look at domestic servants, the global care chains -then we discuss the sex trade -this article by Pyle and Ward is important in providing a conceptual framework for this part of the course in understanding gender and globalization -their analysis is important because they explain how the core processes of globalization are interrelated to produce gendered production networks, in which women are drawn into these networks -gender is not explained, but rather described: offered a description of what is happening -what they do is not just describe women’s experiences, but explain why gender is part and parcel of the dynamic of globalization -understand the whole basis of globalization -how are the global processes of trade, finance, etc., are gendered Pyle and Ward’s analysis: -trade agreements produce gendered trade effects, which is a phrase that allows us to understand why globalization is gendered ^-global trade affects feminized sectors of the economy -trade has a differential impact on feminized sectors of the economy -the gendered sensitive areas often include agriculture in lesser developed regions of the world (women are farmers, sell produce on the market, etc.) -trade agreements upset the gendered division of labour by altering the traditional gender roles -women are constrained to subsistence farming -the traditional gendered division of labour has been disrupted by globalization: women were no longer allowed to sell produce, as that is the man’s job now -global trade has also altered employment opportunities and paid employment for women in trade sectors -quotas guaranteed to let less developed countries to export their goods -by lifting the quotas, it meant that the amount of jobs in that particular sector was reduced -Bangladesh: developed countries to import -however, the US establish impose import quotas on China: they decided to put a halt to the world trade organization -trade affects female-predominated sectors, especially in the garment industry -in the Global North, the garment industry was affected, as many factories closed -garment production was transformed when jobs began disappearing, which was due to the development of global chains -many factories closed during this period -for 100 years, the garment industry was transformed due to the developers of the global supply chain, which created fewer jobs -the main point is that trade agreements that feminized sectors of the economy and that this dimension of global production and global processes often do not acknowledge or recognize nation states or global institutions in relation to the gender-specific impacts of global trade -what are the implications of gender and globalization? -globalized trade: female-dominated sectors are affected -what about production? Globalization: -globalization has produced global subcontracting arrangements that depend on trade agreements -this is the way in which the 3 components are interrelated -the development of global supply chains, which is referred to as the global assembly line, relies on this -corporate global supply chains intensified since the 1970s and now there are vast supply networks in food production, apparel, electronics, sporting goods, toys, etc. -international global supply networks across the world: in all of these networks, women and children are recruited to perform the assembly work, largely because they are inexpensive and fit gender stereotypes Gendered Production: -p. 23: many multinational corporations prefer lower-cost women workers, who are less likely to resist adverse conditions-an example of MNS using the social construction of gender to their advantage -women are also recruited through informal market arrangements, in which they work outside of the factory in informal arrangements for example, in industrial homework, women use the sewing machine to perform various tasks -women are inserted into that global supply chain in industrial homework due to the flexibility and cheap labour -industrial homework is feminized because of ideologies such as the cult of domesticity -corporations benefit from the informal sector of the economy because it subsidizes or reduces the cost production -the third dimension of globalization is Global Finance Global Finance: -they discuss global finance in terms of the rise of foreign direct investment, the changes in finance, the buying and selling of stocks, and the consequences of structural adjustment policies on less developed countries -the proliferation of new kinds of investments in the finance sector, such as derivatives -the global finance sector changed the ways banks operate Structural Adjustment Policies: -structural adjustment policy (SAP): have affected how countries organize their economies ^-policies directed by international monetary fund or world bank in exchange for providing loans: they provide loans to countries in financial difficulty, and in exchange for their loans
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