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HIST 1010
Irmgard Steinisch

December 3, 2012 • French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand o Tried very hard to keep the peace o Envision the United States of Europe  Economic partnership would be the glue to hold the European states together  Stresemann’s death hurt this vision • His death coincided with the great depression and his death may not have had such a big impact  Great Depression hurt this vision • Volker Beghahn o Europe in the era of two world wars: from militarism and genocide to civil world war  Idea: if the first world war wouldn’t of happened there would have been • No Russian revolution • No Russian bolshevism • No cold war • No WWII  Had it not been for WWI we would of had a peace loving world before we did • Politics in the interwar years o Pre WWI it was about colonies and expansion o Now it was about money and the cost of war 1929 Young Plan • Definitive settlement of reparations o Realistic payment schedule (until 1988)  Smaller payment over a longer period of time o Linkage of reparations to allied war loan  If we get our reparations you get your war loans • German agree with the Intent of o getting rid of occupation and allied control o Foreign control of German Railroad ends o Economic control by reparations agent ends and Bank of international settlement established • 13 March 1030 o German government signs bill for acceptance of young plan  By no Hitler is standing next to war hero Hindenburg and is more respected by the Germany public o Business gets 5 ½ % loand from US 300M Harold James, The German slump • Counter factual argument: o Reparations are the glue which kept Weimar Republic and its democratic system alive and function • Reason: Allied Pressure and agency keeps it together • Thereafter: No Political consensus possible French Army Leaves • The last military occupation zone west of the Rhine river ends in 1930 instead of 1935 o Had they stayed until 1935 Hitler would not have been able to avoid the disarmament prescriptions o Rhine land was only a few KM away from the German industrial capital and had the French been there they could of occupied it and prevented re armament Feb 1932-1934: Disarmament Conference in Geneva • 14 Oct 1933 o Germany Withdraws from the conference and from the league of Nations  This was met with enthusiasm in Germany as Germans are expecting to re-arm  Success as he got away with it • Hitler’s Justification: o No equal treatment with France o British government will not side with Germany o Only interested in total success  Wanted all or nothing  Was made more popular in Germany German Re-Armament • Why does Hitler believe that he can get away with it? o No international Sanctions or action  Italy broke the policy and nothing happened to them o German Re-assurance of Poland Final Exam • 4 Parts, each worth 25% • part 4 is devoted to identifiers such as: o reparations o Wilson’s 14 points • What might be the causes for the ascendancy and power grab of Fascist/militarists/extreme nationalist governments in Italy, japan, Germany in the 1920s or 1930s. hat were the similarities or dissimilarities February 4, 2013 Operation Barbarossa • June 22, 1941-German attack on USSR without declaration of war o Hitler and German generals expect USSR to be conquered by the end of July or, at the latest, August 1941  Partly due to the purges and the bad performances of the red army against Finland o Why do this late in the season despite knowing that they don’t want to be there in the winter  USSR was a potential ally to GB • If Germany conquered USSR first this would not be possible • GB may reconsider war against Germany  Soviet expansion • Stalinist Russia resembles tsarist Russia • Russian demands for territory get bigger • Territorial advancement in the Balkans and Poland o Stalin was in disbelief of this attack and was ill prepared to meet German attackers  British and Americans warned Stalin that the Germany were about to attack but Stalin didn’t believe them o War  In Winter 1941/42 German armies get stuck in the snow only 25 miles from Moscow  December 6 1941- Red army finally catches baring’s and rigorous counterattacks  Leningrad (today St. Petersburg) get liberated after 32 months  After the winter is over the Germans attack again but are stopped again by the winter.  Battle of Stalingrad • German army besieges Stalingrad o Surrenders 30 January 1943 o 300k German soldiers are taken prisoner • Russia begins attack the other way • ***In hindsight- it is clear German army lost capacity to fight offensive war • New Alliance o 13 July 1941-Mutual assistance oact between GB and USSR  due to german attack on USSR o USA-measures short of war  Lend lease program • Due to neutrality laws, the US could not aid GB while neutral so they leased equipment instead  Military Conscription • Shows USA about to join war in 1941 o 14 August 1941-Atlantic Charter  Roosevelt and Churchill adopt plan of 4 freedoms • Free Speech • Right to Public expression • Freedom of Religion • Free of fear and want o Welfare state Allied Powers o December 7 1941  Japanese (surprise) Attack on Pearl Harbor (Hawaii) o Alliance between USA, GB, USSR (and Free France- CDG)  Decision is to: st • Defeat Nazi Germany 1 • Defeat Japan 2 nd World War o 8 December- USA and GB declare war on Japan o 11 December- Germany, Italy and allies and dependent states declare war on USA  this makes decision of fighting in Europe first easier o In response, USA Declares war on Germany, Italy and allies and dependent states • Stalin Demands Second Front in the west to alleviate pressure on USSR in the east (German soldiers were at this time 25 miles from Moscow) o August 19, 1942- Dieppe- Allied attack and attempt to land  Attack lasted less the 9 hours  More than 900 Canadians were killed  Roughly 2000 soldiers end up in German imprisonment  Kills Strategy of early Normandy landing o This attack shows that landing in northern france was difficult  Decision made to use north African colonies to attack Europe from the south • Europe’s soft underbelly Japan o Decision to attack on pearl harbor was not taken lightly  Was done only after negotiations with US government fail 27 September 1940- Tripartite Pact • Japan, Nazi Germany and Fasicit Italy (have not nations) want o NWO  Japan leads Asia • Greater East Asian co-prosperity sphere  USA leads Americas • Monroe Doctrine o Declares central and south America as part of its sphere of influence. AKA: Informal Empire  Germany Leads Europe  Russia Leads Eurasia Why Japan wanted war? • Obvious why Germany wanted war and less obvious why Italy wanted war but why Japan wanted war is very unclear • First World War in Europe was beneficial o Big power status o Economic powerhouse o Occupation of German:  Mariana Islands, Marshalls and the Carolines  Tsingtao and Shantung peninsula o Problems with USA Start  President Wilson did not like Japan keeping the German colonies as he believed that the pacific should be an open market • Colonies were close to US • Although Japan benefited from WWI they were not seen as racial equals o Did not get the clause in LoN for racial equality o Caused distrust o Believed power would force equality • Policy of Accommodation o Accepts status quo  November 1921 – Feb 1922, Washington naval conference • Japan Agrees that no new naval bases in pacific (USA and GB already have bases) o Becomes a member of LoN o Japan wanted to be on a good footing with western powers  1922- Shantung Treaty • gives Tsingtao and Shantung Peninsula returned to China • how to explain Japan’s turn to aggressive imperialism o continuity of foreign policy  Japans insistence on equality of western nation  International crisis and Opportunity • International crisis= Japanese imperialism to safeguard national autonomy o Primacy of domestic policy  Domestic crisis favors nationalist and militarist solution  Feudal Past • the 19th century • the 19th century is also called the long century as it lasted from 1789 (french revolution) to 1914 (WWI) • WWI resulted in the end of European Dominance and the introduction of USA as a world power • WWI was about empires and not nation states • the French revolution (1789) • the French revolution changed the people from being subjects to citizens • after the French revolution the French set up the Committee of Public Safety • it was set up to protect against enemies of the revolution and of the republic • over 10,000 people were put to death while some were given the option to take the loyalty oath • revolutionary wars and Napoleonic Wars • estimates of solders killed range from 2.5m to 3.5m • War experience made for an outpouring sense of nationalism • "in the beginning, there was Napoleon." Thomas Nipperdy (Circa 1800) The league of nations • Chair= French pm Clemenceau • 27 victorious powers represented with 70 delegates • Council of 10: 2 delegates of the 5 major powers (USA, GB, France, Italy, Japan) (jaan was to be concuslted only for Asian matters • Council of 4= President Wilson (USA), PM Lloyd George (GB), PM Clemenceau (France), PM Orlando (Italy) • Defeated countries not a member • In order to be heard the members had to plead with the council of 4 Paris Peace Conference • Convened in the hall of mirrors (same place Germany declared itself) Treaty of Versailles Peace Treaty (7 May 1919) • Dictated Peace-Germany was not Consulted and had no impute in the peace • Territorial losses= moderate except for eastern border adjustment with Poland • Plebiscites disregarded • Austria- no Anschluss • German colonies become mandates (Germany branded as unfit to be colonial master) **places that had the right of self determination that chose Germany were disregarded and was ceded by Germany anyway. • Disarmament provisions-unacceptable (counter revolution) • Reparations= open-ended and ending trouble until the Nazi Seizure of Power in 1933 (blank Cheque) • Art. 231-War guilt Clause-German opinion included as justification for reparations-Russia started the war • Art. 227- Kaiser Wilhelm II should face international tribunal as war criminal (never happened. Dutch did not hand him over) June 28, 1919- Treaty Signed • Under threat of allied military invasion Reichstag votes 237 to 138 to accept Versailles Peace Treaty o All the right wingers voted against it as they new that that the social democrats had a majority and would get it anyway o Would be used later to say that Germany was sold out • Signed in the hall of mirrors Weimar Republic • One consensus from the political right to the political left o Reject dictate of Versailles • USA sign separate treat with Germany in Berlin in 1921 (look up) Could Germany could have paid? • Germany did not want to pay • John Maynard Keynes, the economic Consequences of Peace (1919) • Hyper-inflation wrecks German Reichsmark-Bankrupt in Dec 1923 • American Gold Loan in 1924 + 1928 (insert map of Germany and Europe in 1920 (google)) Japan • Paris 1919- is in the inner circle, part of committee of 10 • Origins of conflict between USA + Japan in WWII? • Japanese Imperialism August 1914-Japan declares war on Central Powers • Occupation of German islands • Mariana islands, Marshals and the Carolines o American government assured Japan they could keep the islands after the war Chinese revolution 1911 • End of Ch’ing Dynasty • General Yuan Shikai • 1915-Japanese 21 demands presented to China o ultimatum on May 7, 1915 (day of Shame)-Partly accepted • 1917-China enters war on Allied side o Chinese rulers see that lots of things will be on the table after war and wants a seat at the table to put its impute o wants to dispel those unfair treaties with the Europeans Russian Revolution • Allied Invasion of Russia to fight Bolshevism o Vladivostok • 8,000 American soldiers • 72,000 Japanese soldiers • after the war the Japanese do not leave Problems with Japan • Uprising in Korea o demands for independence o korea not treated as equals • War boom in Japan causing inflation o Large scale riots and escalating social unrest • Anti-Bolshevism o Red scare o Sedition acts (called peace preservation laws in Japan) • Nationalist Propaganda • 1923 devastating earthquake Japan’s mission in Paris 1919 • Equal Status as a major power • Racial equality acknowledged international o Did no happen  Americans had legalized discrimination  Australian dominion thought it would affect their white only immigration laws • League of nations covenant • International acceptance of Japan’s Territorial and economic gains “Yellow Prussians” • War Expansion • Military prowess • Western fears of Japanese imperialism 1922-Shantunf Treaty • Tsingtao and Shantung Peninsula (fromer German territories) return to China January 7, 2013 Nazi foreign policy • Hitler maintained that he never lied about his foreign policy goals o Hitler’s foreign policy agent maintains that Hitler’s foreign polic was laid out in Mein Kempf • Historians maintain that Hitler used “double speak” o While he was speaking in public he kept calling for peace in speeches  He wanted to avoid military conflict at this time o While speaking to the army and in private he kept calling for re armament and was very aggressive  He may have been catering to the military as they wanted re armament. • He catered to them as they were the only ones that could dispose of him • Taylor (British historian) maintains that Hitler was very opportunistic and capitalized on mistakes by other countries • In 1934 there was no diplomacy between USSR and Germany and therfor nobody saw the Hitler Stalin Pact of 1939 • 1934, in contrast with 1933, German foreign policy seemed peaceful(in reality Germany was using diplomacy to undermine the alliances of other states) o In January 1934 Germany entered the German-Polish Non Aggression Pact (10 years)  Prior to Hitler being in charge Poland made no headway in negotiating with Germany  This pact: • Reversed the Weimar Foreign policy • Guarantees eastern border with Poland • Ends tariff war • Free City of Danzig-Polish Corridor  This pact may have been foolish on the polish part but this may not be the case • Poland had a treaty with France but since French foreign policy was mainly defensive the treaty with Germany may have been the smart thing to do in order to defend themselves  Today we know that this non aggression pact was meant to undermine the polish alliance with France but back then there was no way of Poland knowing  France was not too concerned with this non aggression pact as this led the USSR out of hibernation • USSR joins LoN in 1934 • Negotiates with France to reach mutual military defense agreement  Germany gains Poland but France gains USSR=France wins and Germany loses with this pact o Austria rebuffs Germany  Germany tries to ruin Polish economy by banning Germans from going to Austria (Austria lives off tourism  Italy negotiates with Austria and Italy is now the protector of the Austrians  June 14/15 1934-Hitler meets with Mussolini and no agreement is met  July 25 1934-Nazi Putsch and assassination of Austrian Chancellor Dollfus  Italy, Britain and France Guarantees Austrian independence • 1935 o 13 January-Plebiscite in Saarland (91% vote to join Germany)  march 1m 1935 Saarland reunites with Saarland) o 16 March 1934-Germany military Draft  Makes public announcement that Germany will rebuld army and will be bigger than France’s • 37 divisions to France’s 30  Consequences • France, Britain and Italy condemn Germany’s violations of Versailles • Germany and Britain enter negotiations and on June 18 1935 Germany gives GB the naval agreement that GB has always wanted (GB becomes 1 defector) o Tonnage ratio of 100;35 o Submarines were equal o Why did GB enter in this agreement and let Germany build navy?  Germany assured that GB that they did not have any imperialistic ideas. GB thinks that German navy would oppose USSR nd • Italy becomes 2 defector with quest of Empire o Attack on Ethiopia on Oct 3, 1935 by using poisonous gas and their air power o Ethopia was member of LoN and there was an uproar in GB and France. Italy could have been stopped with an oil embargo but while GB and France place economic santions they did not embargo oil o This showed hitler that the LoN was thuthless • Non Aggression pact to last 10 years instilled in August 1939  In 1932 USSR entered in a non aggression pact with neibors Finland, Latvia and Estonia as well as France and Poland January 9, 2013 Stalin’s Russia • There was a lot of hostility towards Russia from the west o Pulled out of the war unilaterally and did not stick with allies (unreliable) o Ideological issues o Didn’t respect the treaties of the tsar  Didn’t pay debts • Third socialist republic o Founded in 1919 o Socialist parties do not join. Only communist parties o Foreign communist parties were to take orders directly from Moscow o Other countries did not believe that Russia wasn’t planning on spreading socialism  Fears almost relisted in 1926 o Communist international=comintern • China o After the WWI China went under a few years of warlordism o Russia supported an independent China o Chinese communists were to work together with the nationalists until the communists party was strong enough to take over o Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek massacres communists and breaks relations with Russia • War scare in USSR (1927) o All by 1925 all big western powers had conservative governments o Britain, afraid of a socialist rebellion,… • Great depression o Great depression increased hostility from the west towards the USSR  Was thought that capitalism taking its last breath o Communism was seen as a good ideology at this time  Communist parties were receiving many votes in western countries • Hitlers rise to power Stalin’s fault? o By 1925, communists saw the socialists, not the nationalists, as their biggest enemy  Called social fascists • Formed coalition governments o Had the directors of international communist formed a coalition with the socialists they may have been able to stop, or slow down, the Nazis and rule other western countries • Japan Occupies Manchuria (1931) o by 1932, japan set up the independent state of Manchukua  Japan spread out and colonized large parts of Asia “liberating” them from European rule  headed by last Chinese emperor Puyi  declares independence from China o Manchukuo was not recognized by any state and japan pulles out of the LoN o On Nov 25 1936 the “Anti-Comintern Pact” between Germany and Japan (vague friendship treaty to stop subversive actions of the Comintern)  Directed against USSR  Close German relations with Chinese government Chiang Kai-shek  In 1938-Germany becomes the only western policy to recognize Manchukuo o After this pact, USSR begins to advocate disarmament and peace talks.  Relations between USSR and USA start to defrost o May 1935  Russian-French Mutual Defense Pact is finalized  Russian-Czech Slovakia Mutual Defense Pact is finalized • 1936 o Popular Front Governments  In Spain • Taken down by General Franco • Hitler and Mussolini sent aid to Franco • Because of fear that other countries may see him trying to spread communism Stalin did almost nothing  In France (PM Blum) • Russian Purges o 1939- Economic failures started Stalin’s Purges  Various show trials for being a traitor were put on to divert responsibility for economic failures away from Stalin  Victims were • Peasants growing crops • scientists trying to work on better crop production • engineers trying to industrialize o in 1934 Stalin lost his position as General Secretary of Communist Party  almost all of the people who didn’t re elect him were killed in purges o in 1937, purge against Russian military. 2 August 1934- Hindinburg dies • 30 June – 2 July 1934=Roehm Putsch o SA leadership is murdered o Murder declared state sanctioned and legal (Hitler above the law) Starting in 1934 Germany becomes a complete Police State • All concentration camps under Himmler’s SS o Concentration camps were used as a form of punishment and as a mean of production • Renaming of concentration Camp Guards in March 1936=SS death Head Units • May 1937 o SS and Police merge together 10-16 Sept 1935-Nazu Party Congress of Freedom • Announcement of racial laws that define who is a Jew and who is not (Nuremburg Laws) o Jews can only be citizens of the state o Germans can be Citizens of the Reich  Only citizens of the Reich can raise the flag of Nazi Germany Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour (Nuremburg Laws) • No intermarriage, no relationships, no contact between Germans and Jews (Race Defilement) • Female servants under 45 are prohibited from working in Jewish households • Jews cannot raise Reich Flag making them easily identifiable for attacks • Jews were relieved when these laws came in as they thought that now that there was a legal definition, they would be able to live their lives • how did they know who was Jewish? o In Germany everyone had an identity card and it said which religion you belonged to o Civil marriage became law in 1870 and not through the church  the government could track marriage back to the first 10 years of the German state (1870) 1936 • February-Winter Olympics • March 7-Occupation of the Rhineland (lebensraum-Living Space) o In violation of Versailles and Locarno Treaties o Did this against the advice of the war minister, 2 in command etc  Had this failed it may have been the end of the Nazi Party and Hitler but as it succeeded it “confirmed” that Hitler knew best o Hitler declares his peaceful intentions  Says military will withdraw from the French border if the French do the same  German Ambassador hands over Hitler’s peace plan in London on April 1 (April Fools Memo) o This move tested British resolve  Answered the question of would they act on matters not directly concerning them? The answer was no o This move tested French Strength  The French didn’t attack the Germans and showed that France was weaker then they were showing  Embarrassed them in front of the eastern European allies as they sowed to be week • Showed that France entered the treaties for there own protection and could not help them  Belgium renounces protection treaty 1936 Berlin Olympics • Berlin was chosen as the host city for the 1936 Olympics well before hitler came to power as a gesture of goodwill after WWI • Despite the legal Anti Semitism most countries showed up • Visitors would not have seen the oppression o They saw clean streets o No beggars o Germans were nice Locarno Treaties of 1925 • Goal: Revision of Versailles Peace Treaty in a Peaceful way • Germany officially recognizes western borders but not eastern boarders • Pledges peaceful revisionism. Treaties of arbitration with France, Belgium, Poland, Czechslovakia 1936 • Axis Berlin-Rome o Mussolini needs allies after his ethipopian (Abyssinia) Conquest o Entered friendship with Germany • Spanish Civil war (1936-1939) o German air force bombs Spanish cities (Guernica) o Italian Troops support Nationalists o Why support Spain?  A Fascist Spain would give a friendly ally on the French Border  Spain had the materials to aid with re armament program in spain 1937 • 28 Sept- Mussolini visits Hitler o great ceremony o Italy’s Only Ally is Germany o friendship with Mussolini was a pre condition forAnschluss (annexation ofAustria) • November 5, 1937 Secret Meeting o Highest German foreign office and military leaders  All in attendance were of Imperial German pedigree  Aristocrats still present which gives the German government respect o Called by Hitler with regards to the conquest ofAustria and Czechslovakia  Wanted Lebensraum (Living Space)  Russia not mentioned o France and GB were posed hostile opposition o Hossbach Memorandum-Summary of the meeting o Nobody knows why the meeting was called  It could be for Hitler to make sure everyone was on board with the territorial expansion despite hostility from France and Germany o German Generals cannot see obtain Austria and czeckslovalia without war  Generals object as all they want are reversal of Versailles treaty and not war  These generals are replaced by “yes men” who agree with Hitler • 19 November o British envoy Lord Halifax meets with Hitler in Bavaria  Hostile Italy and german would be bad for the British Empire as they need to mediteranian to get to India andAustralia • German Economic Development o End of 1933 uneplyment down to 4M.  That is down from 6 M from the beginning of 1933 and from the average from 1930- 1933 o MakesAutobahn plans (1.5B Marks) • Why Hjslmsr Schacht threatens to resign o He saw bankruptcy coming  1933-23% of public funds go to armaments (720M Marks)  1935- 56% public funds go to armaments 5B Marks)  1938- 74% public funds go to armaments (15.5B Marks) o Industrial production soared and unemployment decreased • Austrian Fascism o Hitler feels monarchists Hasburg restoration o Feb 1938-Schuschigg visits Hitler and Hitler demands  Amnesty for Austrian fascists  Position of Minister of the interior forAustrian Nazi leaderArthur Seyss-Inquart (this is how Hitler turn Germany into a fascists dictatorship as the minster controls police and courts) o Austrian Chancellor (Schuschnigg) goes back to Austria and doesn’t know what to do  He proclaims Plebiscite on Anschluss for the 13  Hitler issues ultimatum-Cancel Plebiscite or else  Schuschnigg cancels and Arthur Seyss-Inquart is made minister of interior th o Hitler marches into Austria on the 13 of March 1938 and Austria is now German • Czechslovakia in 1938 o Hitler summons Konrad Henlein (Nazi party leadrer of Sudeten Germans and orders him to demand:  Sudetenland is German! Self determination o April 1938-Hitler orders:  Prepare for “Case Green” (invasion of Czechslovakia o Hitler knows that the Czechs are militarily the strongest allies of France and with it gone France would be weekend. o Countries were promised territorial gains if they went along with Hitler (See recording-35min) o When British publicly states border provision the Czechs president Edvard Benes mobilizes the armed forces (pretty much saying that the czechs will not back down)  British back peddle on revisions o Hitler: Greater Germany only demand. Threatens war over Sudetenland o June-Sept-Sudeten Crisis  July Russia offers support but cannot as Poland does not let Russian troops through  British not willing to go to war for Czechslovakia because they saw what the german air force could o during the Spanish civil war and fears German backlash (Air defence system not yet ready)  Without any support the Czechs were too week to fight Germany and were forced to accept German autonomy  This wasn’t enough for Hitler o British PM Chamberlain visits Hitler-Policy ofAppeasement Czechoslovakia • 29/30 September-Munich Conference o In attendance  Chamberlain  Daladier (correctly assessed that once Hitler had eastern Europe he would turn to France)  Hitler  Mussolini  No representative from Czechoslovakia or USSR at Hitter’s insistence o Result of Appeasement (peace was preserved)  Nobody wanted a war (and nobody thought that Hitler was mad enough to go farther)  Sudetenland to Germany  Teschen to Polan  South Slovakia, Carpathian Ukraine to Hungary o Czechoslovakia was guaranteed by GB and France that the new borders would be preserved • USSR believed that the western powers were directing Nazi Germany towards the USSR o Facing the prospect of going up against a rearmed Germany o Knew that the smaller nations on its border would not come to its aid Does Hitler want war? • After Munich hilter publicy states that Germany has no more annexation plans o 30 sept-German british non aggression pact o 6 Dec French German non aggression pact • This was a lie: Oct 21 hitler begins to plan an invasion of the Czecha 9 November-Nigh of broken crystal • 28 October 1938- 17k Jews of polish nationality deported to Polish Border • 7 November+ Herschel Grynspan assassinates Germany Embassy official in Paris • November 9 o 91 Jews were killed and many more injured o 191 synagogues destroyed o 7500 Jewish shops plundered and destroyed o cemeteries destroyed o Jewish homes ransacked o Est 25M Marks in damages o 30K Jews deported into concentration camps • high level of criticism with Germany but no protest • total segregation o no public schools, universities, concerts o Aryanization of Business • There was a mass exedus from 1933 (562K German Jews) to 1945 (25K jews in Germany o The yonge and educated were the first to leave as they knew that there was no future in Germany o In 1941 it became increasingly difficult for jews to leave Germany End of Appeasement policy? • Germany invades and occupies rump of Czechia on March 15 1939 o Czech premier surrenders as he has no chance • Czechia into Nazi Gaue: Bohemia and Moravia • Hitler Visits Prague -Triumphant • 23 March 1939 o German troops invade and seize previously German Memel area from Lithuania • March 31 1939- British publicly pledge to defend Poland and threatens war o Starts conscription and sends a clear message • 1 Sept- attack on Poland o German government tried to convince Poland to join them  Were very generous  28 of April Hitler cancels naval agreement with Britain and non aggression pact with Poland  Told Generals to get ready for Case White (Attack on Poland)  Poland Refused and were attacked on September 1, 1939 Hitler-Stalin Non Aggression Pact • 23 August 23 1939 • Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact (Molotov Ribbentrop Agreement) • Secret Part: Division of Poland (West got Germany and East to Russia) and Baltic States • According to Hitler the Deal with the devil gave him a guarantee against a 2 front war and secured materials • Stalin believed that that western powers would fight amongst themselves and give Russia more time in case Germany would attack Russia Race War? • Sept 1-Attack on Poland (Case White) • Sept 1-Euthanasia Order (Back dated from Oct 17 on Hitler’s order • Aktion T4-Gas Trucks murder demented or disabled people Historiography=Continuity in German Foreghn policy • 1933 to 1936/7=Partial Fascism o message of peace and just entitlement-at home and abroad-Revisionism o Misconception Abroad is Continuity-the old right wing elite of Imperial Germany still at Center of Power • 1938/9 o turning Point o Police state established to such a degree that everyone saw it AJP Taylor • Hitler just another German statesman • Hitler gambled to high and did not want war o Wanted to pick up one state after another without British intervention Tim Mason • November 9 1918 imprinted Hitler and Nazis Guns and Butter promises • 1938 has to choose-Does he want war not not o Economy cannot accomplish both • RW Overy-Correct but not in 1939 Japan and the Pacific War (1931-1945) Pre war Japan (1854-1931) • 1854 Japan “opens” to the US o American allowed in Japan and are treated as US citizens and not subject to Japanese Law o 1868-Meji Restoration  Old emperor resorted to power o 1873 Ryukyu Islands Taiwan  Japan took these islands and it was fairly bloodless o 1876 Korea “opens” to Japan • First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) o Fought over Korea  Korea was to China was Canada was to US and when japan set it sights on Korea China got upset o Japan won rather quickly  Lead to Anglo Japanese Alliance • Russian Japanese War o Japan wins over a white population and Europe takes notice o Russia seen as weaker then first thought • 1910-Japan Annexes Korea • ***attacking china is a historical Japanese dream Pacific War (1931-1945) • by the late 1920 japan had a seat in Versailles o doesn’t look like they would get racial parity due to the Europeans not letting japan take land (15 demands for china not allowed by Europeans, no indemnities from Russia) The second Sino Japanese War (1937-1945) War against the Allies WWII in Europe From Bismark to Hitler (Continuity) • Imperial Germany was quite authoritarian o Did not have parliamentary freedom o Had a pseudo-constitutional system which reinforced authoritarian regimes in the German republic • Intentionalist vs structuralist o Intentionalist-Hitler had a plan o Structuralist-Hitler exploited all opportunisties and excelled in constant improvisation- o Did he want Europe and Lebensraum (continentist) o Did he want world domination (Globalist) • Racial ideologue-Intentionalist o Hitler racial ideology is the guiding idea o Needed living space for the German race to expand • H.R. Trevor Roper o Hitler is both  Mainly ideologue but with an overall program  Good instinct and able to take opportunities when they arise  Wanted Lebensraum in the east • He was a continentals • Living Space and World Domination o Andreas Hildebrand  Rejection of imperial German revisionism • To demand pre 1914 borders is nonsense • 4 world powers. GB, USA, Japan, Germany • structurolist o Hitler has no plan o Nazi state is a constant action o Nazi foreign policy is opportunistic and sporadic o Use the non aggression pact with Russia as proof that there is no plan (Ribbentrop convinced Hitler to proceed with the pact in order to wage a successful plan) • 1939 World War II o September 1- Germany invades Poland o September 3- GB and France declare war • Poland o Fierce resistance but at a massive disadvantage  In order to not give Germany a reason to attack they delayed mobilization  Despite this disadvantage and inferior manpower and equipment poles were fierily resistant o 17 Spetpmeber-Red army attack poland and division starts • Blizkrieg in poland o Concentrate german forces on strategic points o They then have responsibility to cut throguht enemy lines at certan point and penetrate from behind o Cut off supplies o Airforce works with army by supporting from the top  Down bombers are to surprise enemy soldiers and civillians (cause confusion) o September 19- Hitler in Danzig (city neurtliasez in Versailles and this is a symbolic gesture on hilters part) o September 27- Warsaw surrenders but sporadic military resistance until October 6, 1939 • 4 Partition of Poland o Brest-Litowsk  German and Soviet forces meet o 28 September 1939-German-soviet border and friendship treaty • Blitzkrieg into Sitzkrieg o Phony war until 1940  Not so phoney in Poland as the Nazis are killing whoever may have leadership qualities o War against Poland is the last war planned by the generals in Nazi Germany  Generals suffer a decline in stature when it comes to Hitler ideas about war • Generals don’t want a world war and procrastinate to having new campains • Hitler wants new campaigns • Ideas of killing hitler surface but nobody has the guts to do it • 6 October 1939- Hitler last peace offer o long speech in german Reichstag o Demands acceptance of Status quo o France and GB reject offer as this would mean accepting new eastern border • Racial Empire o Generalgouvernement Poland=Colonial Area for non German Populations o Western Poland with 10Million people 1M German and .7 M Jew 7.8Mill polish o Polish who looked Arian were Germanized  If children looked German but parents didn’t children were taken from parents and given to German families • Enigma o German encuphring machine o Writing secret code  Codes change in 1938 o German intelligence didn’t know that other have enigma machines and it was easier to decipher the code • Millitary strategy o France and GB had adopted defensive strategy  Had adopted this policy based on the lessons of WWI where the offensive side lost massive losses  Some general thought that due to the new technologies an offensive strategy would be beneficial but could not convince others  French and british thought that the germans would not attack the Margineu line and if they did they would be destroyed • Instead they thought that they would attack like in WWI through the plains of Belgium where they would be met by French and British soldiers  GB relied heavily on its navy and relied on the blockade wich caused Germans to starve • Worked wonders in WWI but not in WWII as Germany had more supplies die to their expansion in the east  Anti aircraft defense is fully mobilized in GB • Knew that airforce would be key and had the spitfire and huuricane planes production accelerated o Germans subscribed to full out offensive war planning (Blitkrieg)  Germany knows that they could not win by staying put or taking to long  Germany had less tanks and no decent trucks for logistics but the impression they left made the other side believe that they had superior forces. WWII November 1939- Winter War • Before the war USSR attempted to negotiate with finland in order to allow russia to use the harbor on the west coast for defensive armaments o Finland didn’t want Russian troops in it territory • Soviet Attack on Finland o Red army is inept  Everyone thought that the red army would walk through finalnd but the finns managed to anniliate 5 of 30 divisions  Stalin brings in a great general and he amass a big army and out numbers finland 50-1. o March 14, 1940-Finnish Defeat o Cession of Finnish Border territory and military basis • USSR still german ally • USSR want to create a buffer zone between itself and the western powers • Importence of war o Hitler sees the ineptude of the USSR and thinks he could actually win a war against it o The other western powers see the ineptude, along with its purges, and believes that they are no problem April 9 1940: Denmark/Norway • Important war for economy o Germany needs Iron ore for war materials o Germany now also have important naval bases to wage a naval war against GB • Surprise invasion starts o Norway and Denmark are neutral but Hitler thought that GB would not honour Danish neutrality • By June, Occupation of Norway complete November 12, 1939-Hilter’s order to Attack France • Military leaders contends that Germany are not ready • May 10-June 23 1940-France surrenders (6 weeks) • Strategy o Goes through forest not Belgian plains  Violates neutrality of Belgium, Luxemburg and Holland  Belgian army strongly resist, to Germany’s surprise • Belgium army surrenders on May 28, 1940 • British army evacuate Dunkirk due to Belgian weekness o 338K British and French Troops are shipped to GB against British orders  Churchill eventually comes around  Boosted British moral and will to fight became stronger • 5 June to 24 June-Conquest of France (2 Phase) o June 14, 1940- Germany take Paris  A lot of infighting in the French high command leads to lack of a clear policy o 22 June 1940- Government of Marshal Petain (Hero of Verdun) and former PM Pierre Laval ask for armistice  Armistice signed on June 23, 1940  both will head up the Vichy government o CDG escaped into exile  Claims to represent the true France “The Free French”  Urges French People to keep up resistance • A lot of partisan actions with brutal German retaliation “Moderate Peace” • Alsace-Lorraine and Eupen-Malmedy returned to Germany • Luxemburg becomes part of german • Belgium under German military command • Netherlands ruled by German Reichkommisar • Vichy France unoccupied but neutral • 3/5 of France under military occupation • ***Interseting that France are allowed to keep its colonies as Germany does not want them. o Pokes a whole in the theory that Germany wanted world domination Mussolini-Fascist Italy • 10 June 1940- declares war on GB and France • attack on France repelled • Sept 1940- Attack on Egypt (GB Colony) with aid of German Afrika Korps o Italy Defeated 1942/1943 Italy Dependant on Germany • 28 October 1940- Italian Attack on Greece in order to counteract German dominance in Eastern Europe o again a failure o German troops come to the Italian’s aid • Invade Balkan countries (which delays Russian campaign) o By April 1941 the Balkans are occupied by German military • Mussolini no longer an Equal partner • War loot for Germany: o Oil o Food o Raw material Germany and the Balkans • Germany blocks socviet Balkan Expansion • Yugoslavia Festung Europa (Fortess Europe) • Much of continental Europe under german control • Generalissimo Franco in Spain asked to high a price (colonies) for entering war on German side o Importance of Gibalter Great Britain • Winston Churchill becomes PM and pledges to bring down the monstrous tyranny of Nazi Germany o Naval Blockade of Germany • USA drops policy of isolationism step by step o USA “The great arsenal of democracy” August 13 1940- Battle of Britain • Operation Sea Lion or The Blitz o Germany didn’t know how to invade GB as the navy was not up to scratch o Germany decided to use Planes instead  Destruction of British coastal defenses and airfields and armament industries to gain control of air • Hitler started Bombing raids on London and other cities o Churchill sends 5 air raids to bomb Berlin o Hitler angy send planes back to bomb Britain • Climax of air war was in the fall of 1940. Air war lasts until may 1941 • Battle Ended o With no german control of airspace o British superiority at sea not threatened-Blockade o No serious crippling of British armaments productuin capacity o Demonstrated importance of radar and long range boambers  Perfection of radar and long range bombers and mass production o Royal air force will havr air superiority with US entrance into war 27 September 1940- Tri partite Pact • Germany, Italy and Japan • Agreement on the reordering on Europe and east aisa o In 1942 turns into military alignment  April 1941- Japan conclude neutrality agreement with Russia. November 12, 2012 War Legacies- POWs civil war in Russia • POWs were not considered heroes and were pretty much forgotten and even ridiculed. • 8-9 million soldiers end up in enemy imprisonment (estimate) o 3.4m Russians o 2.8 m Austria Hungary o 1m Germans o 600k French o 600k Italian o 400k British International committee of the red cross • Founded in 1863 by Jean-Henri Dunant (Swiss business man) o witness to the battle of Solferino, 1859 • Purpose was to “civilize war” o care for the wounded o 1907 add-ons to the Geneva convention  rules for POWs (treat POWs with dignity) • Neutral countries organize support for POWs o Broker exchange of POWS  Didn’t happen in practice as it was a head to head exchange • In reality, POWs were used to make up for manpower o Used to dig ditches o Used to neutralized hand grenades  Sometimes in the line of fire o If they were lucky they were sent to farms The POWs experience • Officers o Privileged treatment (especially in Tsarist Russia) o No work detail, better provisions, housing, services o Were even allowed to go shopping • Soldiers o sent to work camps o hard labour • POWs in British custody treated the best • POWs in Russian Custody the worst (unless you were an officer) • French, Austrian German camps: POWs were treated pretty bad Repatriation • In treaty of Versailles German troops must return POWs very quickly but not the other way around • German POWs in France shipped to North Africa to clear Bush and construction • Used to rebuild devastated eastern France • Retuned in March 1920 POWs=Deserters? • Italy o Believed all POWs were deserters and were treated as traitors o Policy of neglect and abuse o Unlike other countries, Italy did not send food to their POWs as it would
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