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The Struggle of the orders brief overview of profs actual lecture...word for word, but of course he adds to it. i found them very useful and you can too.. I guarantee you cant go wrong.

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HIST 2100
Ben Kelly

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HIST 2100: ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME WINTER Lecture 3: The Struggle of the Orders 1. The transition from monarchy to Republic. The evidence tends to suggest that the transition from a monarchy to a Republic at Rome took place in the late-sixth century BC. • Literary sources like Livy give 509 BC as the year. • The fasti start in 509 BC as well. These are perhaps a more reliable ‘documentary’ source than literary authors like Livy. 2. The new Republican system. Put simply, the new Republican political system had three main elements: i) The consuls. There were two at any one time. They held office for a year. They were elected by an assembly of the people. They had both military and civilian powers. ii) The senate. In later stages of Republic, the senate was a permanent body of aristocratic men. The senate might have been a less permanent body at the very start of the Republic. iii) The Assemblies of the People. There were several different popular assemblies in the Republican period. The main one in the early Republic apparently was the comitia centuriata (‘Assembly of the centuries’). This assembly elected magistrates, passed laws, acted as a court, and had foreign relations functions (e.g., ratifying treaties and declaring war). 3. Social divisions. The literary sources claim that earliest Rome was a socially divided society from the earliest period. Various other types of evidence (especially the fasti and the Twelve Tables) would also suggest sharp social divisions, especially from the middle of the fifth century. The main social divisions were between: i) Slave and free. The Twelve Tables make it clear that early Rome was a slave owning society. ii) Patricians and plebeians. The literary sources claim that patriciate was ‘closed’ from the start of the Republic (i.e., no new families could become patrician), and that for the first century-and-a-half, the patricians monopolized the office of consul. The evidence of the fasti, however, suggests that only from the middle of the fifth century BC was there a patrician monopoly on high office. The Twelve Tables also suggests that there was an (eventually unsuccessful) attempt to prevent patricians and plebeians from marrying each other. iii) Patrons and Clients. There is also evidence in the Twelve Tables of the institution of patronage in early Rome, just as there is evidence for this institution in later periods of Roman history. According to this patrons had the obligation to protect and give benefits to their lower-class clients; clients, for their part, had to offer various types of support. iv) Landowners and landless. The Twelve Tables show that already in the fifth century there was a distinction between landowners, who were liable to military service (adsidui) and landless people, who usually were not permitted to serve in the army (proletarii). 1 4. The economy of early Rome. The Twelve Tables also provide evidence relating to economic conditions in early Rome. i) Agriculture. Agriculture was the main economic activity. Cereal crops, viticulture, and arboriculture were the most important forms of agricultural activity; raising livestock was somewhat less impor
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