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January 24, 2013-Persian Wars.docx

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HIST 2100

January 24, 2013 Lecture 6 HISTORY 1M03: PERSIAN WARS Sources on Persians During War • Literary o Primarily Greek o Herodotus • Retrospective evidence (art, archeology) o Inscription of Behistun Meet the Persians! • Indo-European people o Modern Fars regions o Related to Medes (Median Empire) The Achaemenids • 553 BCE: Persians overthrow Median Empire • Cyrus II (the Great) • Achaemenid Dynasty o Pasargadae (capital city) Achaemenid Timeline • Cyrus the Great (559-520 BCE) o Annexation of Lydia (incl. Ionian cities); Babylon • Cambyses (530-523) o Egypt o “Persian Debate” • Darius the Great (522-486) o Bactria, Sogdiana, India, Thrace Persian Army • Comprises troops from across the empire • Cavalry, archers o Herodotus: Persian boy taught three things > to ride the horse, shoot straight, and always tell the truth o The “Parthian shot” • Immortals o 10000 heavy infantry (elite) Imperial Administration under Darius • Satrapies (Provinces) o Civil-military administration o Satraps • Respect local customs, languages, political organization and religious beliefs o Earth and Water > token of friendship and submission • Other Reforms o “Eyes and Ears of the King” > spy network, people all around the empire and tells the King everything o Royal Road > Western part of Turkey to Persia and ties the empire together > good for infantry o Moves capital to Persepolis Ionian Cities • Puppet tyrants with Persian support o Miltiades (Philaid), Tyrant of Chersonese • Aristagoras of Miletos o Attempted to seize Naxos with Persian hel o Seeks help from mainland Greece o Cleom
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