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HIST 2500 Lecture Notes - Mackenzie Bowell

Course Code
HIST 2500
William Wicken

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Introduction to 1867-1945 Period
What happens when Canada takes over North America?
In 1869; Canada takes over Rupert’s land (Manitoba, Northern Ontario and
Saskatchewan and Alberta)
oThe Metis set up a blockade, to prevent people from entering Rupert’s
Land (this is a crisis)
The Canadian government doesn’t respond until 7 days later
oThe Purpose of Canada’s expansion to the west is to prevent the
American’s from obtaining it (purchasing/Conquering it)
oThe period from 1867 to the 1900s; is when Canada is actually created
(socially, economically and politically)- particularly during WWI
Before 1867
An aboriginal continent
A French colony
A British colony
Limited population
Limited transportation networks
Limited commonalities (politically and socially-immigration)
Limited political union-is fractured between French Canadians, the Maritimes,
Quebec and Ontario
Limited communication
Industrialization: urbanization, commercialization, and nation-building
oIs the most important process; is the application of new sources of
power to make commodities in new places (factories) and using new
forms of labour (working class) and capital and distributing those
commodities using new transportation networks
oHydroelectricity, the factory system
War and the post-war consequences

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oCanada goes to war as apart of the British empire throughout WWI
Economic Depression
o1873-1896 and 1930-1939
oGovernment’s did not intervene, to support the market
Constitutional change: Westminister Statute 1931; 1949 witnesses end of
oIt’s during this time period Canada become dependent from the British
o1914-Canada declares war on Germany when Britain does
o1931-Canada becomes supreme
Goods produced and exchanged in new ways
oThe evolution of the factory and where they are located (urban areas)
o1867-1920s- Canada progressively becomes an urban nation (Urban-
towns greater than 1000 people)
Factories: evolve into assembly line production, mass production
oLeads to mass production- the ability to produce replicated products on
a consistent basis (cars and interchangeable parts-important
technological innovation)
Things are not produced on such a large scale before the 19th
New forms of labour: working class and the professional middle class
oLeads to unionization- which results in the reformation of civil and
political policies
oThe professional middle class is essential towards development
(doctors-curing diseases and engineers- creating sewers)-
sustain/develop the industrial economy
New sources of power: steam power, the carburetor, and hydro-electricity
New Sources of Transportation: the Railway

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Railroad from the 1830s in Great Britain
oDistributes goods and people from one place to another (Canada-
Canada: from the 1840s; 1849 Guarantee Act
Becomes means to create ‘Canada’
oMakes it possible to go from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Transcontinental railroad completed 1885
oIs important towards using Imported labour (China and Europe)
The Steamship
Maximum length of wooden ship had been 300 feet
oHow many and how fast people can be transportation
Make global transportation possible (promotes trade and
Use of steel to build hulls: turbine engines
From 1880s, more than 900 feet
Titanic which sinks off coast of Nfld in 1912 exemplifies the new ‘modern’ age
of transportation
Mass immigration
Decreases passage across Atlantic
oShips make it possible (is cheaper-larger ships)
Introduces age of mass transportation
Mass immigration: into western Canada and the US
The Carburetor engine
The automobile
oAllowed people to migrate to new places (the west)
Roads (investments were made in highways
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