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HIST 2500
William Wicken

Canadian History 2500 Lecture Notes Sept 19, 2013 - Samuel De Champlain- Born in about 1570, town: brouage, southwest France - Founder of new France – - 1608 arrived in St. Lawrence valley - Died in 1635 – Left 6 volumes of his writing as well as maps/drawing of this region - Describes the landscape and people he encounters, first written descriptions of indigenous people. - Documents are ambiguous (can’t take as literally true) - Born into a family that is up and coming, father was a ship owner - Champlain is living in a wealthy family, gives him opportunity, but also his family is part of a new emergent, merchant class, not noble - Diversity within our society - Regional differences, divide us because of our geography - 5 time zones - New France – This is an area, a colony established by France in area’s that will later become Canada - St Lawrence river valley, now known as Canada, Acadia (maritime areas - P.E.I, New Found Land, Nova Scotia - Pays d’en haut (north west of Montréal) - Louisiana – 1701, Detroit as well as Illinois (Mississippi ) - Generic broad term to talk about a large area of New France - Centre of the French colony of New French is Canada - Leads to north Atlantic - Becomes more mountainous - In Montréal in the 1870s would die before their first birthday - Long period of change that is ongoing within the north Atlantic world - Expanding commercial trading network - Growth of a new merchant class (Champlain’s father becomes a part of) - Merchants and allies will challenge how government is organized as well as organized religion strangle hold of political and religious dialog of the period - Countries that faced north Atlantic (England, France and Spain) - Social Hierarchy - Merchant and artisans - Rules by a monarch which is hereditary - The structure of government and the way in which the government is organized in France will be transferred to Canada (organizational structure) The king in New France will give land to the nobility - Bases of all wealth is land - Champlain part of this transition, born at the right time, political influence - Before 1517 only one church, the Christian church (Spain, France, England) - King who is gods messenger on earth - As the pope is his religious being on earth - Churches monopoly over power = written in the language of the people - The Bible was only written in latin - Ordinary persons wanted to interpret gods words - People interpreting the bible for themselves, creates two separate sex in the Christian church (cathartics use the old testament and protestants reading the bible for themselves new testament) - In 1598 possibly Champlain’s father henrys the 4 edict of nontes - To create more stability within Franch society initiated the edict of Nantes - The reformation is important with what will happen in new france because one of the groups born during reformation is a new society of priests who will bring gods word to the world, society of Jesus is created to bring gods word - Civil war and reformation in France had prevented France from expanding its territory into America after 1598 and stabilization of French politics will attempt to do so. - Protestants Vs. Catholics Tutorial Notes Sept 19, 2013 - Office Vari Hall # 2187B 12:30-1:30 - Map quiz beginning of class next week - 15 will show up on the quiz - How did these diseases affect aboriginal people - Position riley in other historic research - What is the study of history – Learn from what happened, gather knowledge from the past - Bumsted – we don’t study history in order to predict the future, we can study history in hopes that we won’t repeat the past - Learn history in every subject we take - What is the difference between facts and the truth? Truth = point of view, fact = evidence (History that we read, written by people, hard to discover universal truths) - What is historiography – The history of the study of history or how its been written (Example: 1930s economic history, because its during the depression) - Periodization = breaking down history into periods (Victorian period, enlightenment period) - Primary source – a source from the time - Secondary source – someone who looks that the primary source (put their input) - John Cabinet first to record the discovery if New Found Land - What makes a good historian: Look at two side of the stories, (both sides of war) Lecture Sept 26, 2013 - First encounter as he sailed up the St. Lawrence river - Met a group of aboriginal people - Comes in just above Quebec city, period before 1603, French and bask fisherman from northern Spain and Sothern France had been fishing in this area for about 100yr - French civil war disrupt this area th - Champlain funded by merchants/bankers in French and Henry the 4 - Montreal major aboriginal village, and in Quebec city - 1603 encounters about 1000ppl from various communities and they come from all around quebec - They are there because they come from a common geographical territory, there to trade - Inuit bring the furs with the Micmac - Trading Fair- large trades of indigenous people - Champlain wants to trade and establish relationships with aboriginal people - Depends on their knowledge of the geography, what lies to the west? - Champlain in search of gold/silver, so they ask indigenous people about gold/silver - French learn the aboriginal language - Liquid gold will make this area - People like Champlain and other French traders decide liquid gold will make them rich - Champlain wants money in return - Eastern region: Algonquian-speaking people - Another group of people Champlain encounters: Huron and Haudenosaunee - Huron People who live further in land, southern Ontario - By 16,000 they move northward toward lake Simcoe - Haudenosaunce – horticulturalists, - Corn, pumpkins and beans – these people do not plow - Those villages had to move every 20yrs - Patrillineal and patrilocal: Decent is traced through the mother, at marriage the husband moves in with his wife’s family, relationship with the women maintained in the household. Because women do the farming - Primarily foragers, hunters and fishers - 10000 to 15,000 people in 1600 - Farming is more effective in providing nutrients and can store food in the winter-time - Corn crucial to maintain a population during those winter months - Text book and walker book will be in the exam (100%) - Bi-lineal and bi-local: - Native women have a lot of influence prior to contact with western culture - Houdenosaunee: Population early 1600s (In the powerpoint), Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk - Iroquois another word for houdensaunes - Two sets of palisades, exterior wall and interior wall - Third voyage in 1608 - Intersection between Champlain and Algonquians speaking people - Warfare predated the arrival of the French - Algonquin at war with Houdensaune - Because the Europeans control access to trade that indigenous societies want - They also want guns - The little ice-age: in the time period of 1500-1700 lower temperature which impacts indigenous people - Trading relationship with these people - About 50 Mohawk killed, and 10-12 taken captive - There is a decision by the Algonquin, will hide Champlain and use him as a weapon to the unsuspecting Mohawk - Champlain shoots and kills two of the Mohawk leaders
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