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Sept 19 - Samuel de Champlain copy.docx

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York University
HIST 2500
William Wicken

Part Two: The North Atlantic World to the 1760s September 19: Samuel de Champlain Tutorials will meet Broad Themes: French colonial ventures; Aboriginal peoples in the early 1600s. Readings: Bumsted; pp. 2-34, including embedded texts on Jacques Cartier, (p. 15), Father Biard (p. 23); How History has Changed (p. 35); Dickason, ‘Canada when Europeans Arrived, in Walker, ed., The History of Immigration, pp.17-26. Bumsted: - 4 - Arrival of european discourser at end of 15 century mark only the moment at which the inhibited land and its people enter the european historical record - The First Immigrants - North america did not produce indigenous archaic human forms - The first humanlike injaitatnt of north america was homo sapiens himself, probably arriving as an immigrant in the new world during the last great ice age (perhaps across a land bridge stretching between what is now siberia and alaska - First nations oral tradition last way before writing - 5 - Early people did not try to modify their environment but try to adapt to it - Chief factors influencing north america was climate - Physical artefacts only remain from this period - About 8000BCE (hunters, gatherers who lived in small units although not in total isolation from neighbours) - Evidence survives of trade an the exchange of goods - Glaciers moved northward and ice melted, hunters who made the fluted points spread widely across continent - Bow and arrow and pottery spread from 1000BCE-500CE - Introduction of pot provides food preparation changing and added design - The First Nations Population around 1500 - Aboriginals livelihood depended on resources and survival skills - 6 - Many groups were hunters and gathers, organised into mobile bands that followed the seasons and the cycles of game - On the coast, fishing was the means of collecting food - North, whether one fished or hunted depended on the season - Pacific, the rich resource base of salmon and cedar made possible accumulations of wealth and social gradation (demonstrated its not essential to farm inorder to prosper) - Inuit inhabited an ice bound territory in the north - Using kayak for sea and dogsled for land - Igloos for winter and skin tents for summer - Caribou hide for clothing and protection from weather - Organised around food supply, offering semi nomadic people scope for acquisition of material positions - 8 - Food was never cultivated, but pursued - The aboriginal population, lacking immunities to a variety of european diseases, was quickly decimated by epidemics which spread across the land, often in advance of the actual appearance of a european human carrier - The First Intruders - Norsemen made the first document european visitations to north america - 9 - Greenlanders may have timbered on baffin island and intermitted with the inuit - 15 century Portuguese and english fishermen may have discovered the rich fishing grounds off the grand banks - Europe around 1500 - Arrival of europeans in the americas at the end of the 15 century was a collaborative effort by mariners and contemporary scholars of many nations, behind which were profound changes in economies and polities - Ambition to visit new land was by confidence and knowledge associated with renaissance - Paolo dal posse toscanelli were convinced Europe and asia were closer that ancients thought (scheming columbus) - 11 th - 12 century germans developed the cog (single masted ship decked over and fitted with rudder and tiller) - Art of navigation showed development parallel to ship design - Greatest advance was in written sailing directions based on taking latitudes in relation to the north star and the sun - The discoverers sought wealth and riches, while national advantage and missionary favour direct against resident inhabitants, resources of new world remained principle attraction - Portuguese thought discovery was enough to rule, english through first building/habitat was important as replenishing and subduing a land - 12 - The french were most likely to account the feelings of the indigenous people - French monarchical political customs at home relied heavily on the use of ritual and ceremony (incorporated the consent of the aboriginal people into their ceremonies as a central component) - Made sure aboriginals gave appropriate signs of agreements or still participated in ceremonies of possession - 14 - English cultural symbols of land possession usually involved signs of successful occupation - The European Entry into North America - John cabot was to find short route to asia from england and found new foundland - Portugal attempted to settle a colony of Newfoundland coast under the the leadership of juan fagundes - Ended on cape breton island where local residents killed their settlement - Francis I ordered giovannni de verrazzano to uncover new lands where it has quantity of gold and other precious things (little concern for aboriginals) - Must make a great discovery, locate mineral resource to attract investor and royal court, large scale effort that failed to produce any profit (3 voyages) - Cartier came and explored (1534) -Met aboriginals who came baring meals -Aboriginals game in hurds with goods (furs, dancing, possessions) -Savages felt ease of their presence -Bartered until they owned nothing but their own flesh -They were people easy to convert -Much wheat and berries, salmon -Want to convert them to Christianity - Then martin frobisher searching for northwest passage and great wealth in arctic region - Went to baffin island and found gold and ore - 16 - Turned to be nothing more than sandstones and mica - Frosbisher quest for northwest passage in arctic waters inspired a series of explores (englishmen) - Henry hudson last voyage entered hudson bay and navigated its eastern costal waters southward to james bay before his crew cast him adrift never to be seen again th - 16 century henry vii, Elizabeth 1 joined francis 1 of france to set west hoping to obtain wealth and advante from the boyages - Americans joined in hopes of competing with spaniards and portuguese - French government didnt show much interest in north america until the end of the century, by which france’s henry iv had stabilised the monarchy - 18 - France and england, overseas investment by an merging mercantile class took over gradually - Cartiers third voyage marked for france the transition from m public to private enterprise - 1576 voyage of martin frobisher in search of northwest pages to the east demonstrated new importance of mercantile investment to the english - End of 16 century established no wealthy aboriginal civilisation to be conquered on east, nor any apparent source of rich mineral wealth to be exploited - Continent had abundance of fish and furs - France and england shifted their energies from maritime thrusts to colonisation - 19 / 20 - The Impact of Disease on the Aboriginal People - Measles, small pox, typhus, typhoid, mumps and veneral diseases were as much european introductions as the gun and the horse - Aboriginal population had little immunity to them - 21 - Trade and war, adopting captive women and children spread new and virulent diseases - Crowding around the sick only spread disease - Employment of warfare to replenish population through captivity and adoption - Intermarriage - 22 - Move after depopulation - European contact and the development of cultural conflict - First several centuries, europeans in canada who were successful in surviving adopted first nations technology - In eastern canada three primary language familes were algonquian, iroquoian and siouan - 23 - Father biard on the mi’kmaq, 1616 - Some say the french poisoned them, gave them expired food, - No one there to take care of them when the voyagers leave - learned to make a new language with basics - 25 - Spoke in pigeon tongue - Had interpreters sometimes - First nations didnt have political institutions like europeans with kings and head men - 26 /27 - Animals had spiritual significance - Food consumption acquired deep religious meaning, becoming form of worship of the spirt world - Shamans - First nations religion had no building, clerical hierarchy, institutional present and disoriented the europeans - 28 - Tolerance for alternative spiritual values and belief systems was hardly one of europes strong suits in the age of discovery - Europe could not convert firs nations to Christianity without determining the very basis of heir existence (nature/spirit) - What newcomers saw as exploitation to women, reflected their inability to comprehend the divisions of labour within a warrior society - Men hunted and fought while women were responsible for all else - Aboriginals had a strong sense of love and community --the most perfect freedom, the ease of living and the absence of those cares and corroding solicitudes which so often prevail with us - First nations exhibited none of the negative features of capitalistic society - 18th century an idealised and romanticised view of aboriginal society we used by many european philosophers as a literary convention and fictional device for critiquing contemporary european society - 29 - The first european communities -The plan was permanent settlers employed by the company would quickly dominate the fishery over those who came in the spring and wen home in the autumn -Europe was short of protein food for the poor -The company did not appreciate how difficult local aciculate would be given the soil and the climate or how unlikely it was in the vast expensed other new world hat settlers could be kept permanently as landless employees labouring solely for the profit of their masters -The french were marginally more successful that the english at establishing the colonies in the northern regions in arcadia and canada - 30/31 - Samuel de champlain headed up st. Lawrence in 1608 to found a new trading post for de monts a stadacona - Another habitation erected with three buildings of 2 storeys - Fell under squrvey and allied with local first nation and drew the french into war against the Iroquois - Trading posts, rather than settlements colonies, were the goal - Until 1618 champlin served as an agent for others rather than a colonial promoter in his own right - His combined arguments for major investments with a sec=heme designed to appeal to the imperial pretensions of the crown - New france the st. Lawrence not only held the possibility of a short route to asia but could produce a great and permanent trade in the items of fish, timber, whale oil and fur - 32 - The beginning of overland exploration - The geographical shakedown of european colonisation activity in the late sixteenth and early seventieth centuries determined that it would be the french who would take the lead in exploring the norther interior of the content an dither activities would extend far beyond the boundaries of Canada - French founded settlement on the st Lawrence ricer in the interior of the content providing access to the great lakes and to most of the major river systems of north america….conferring enormous power and influence on the nation that controlled it - The ability of young frenchmen to adapt themselves o the ways of the first nations was also critical - First major french overland explorer was etienne brule - Interpreter - Their desire was less to improve cartography than to exploit new sources of wealth, particularly furs and above all to enjoy and adventurous life in the woods - They all learned skills from aboriginals that made them crucial figures in the economy of new france - 33 - Marine skills like latitude or reading the surface of the water replaced by the ability to live off the land, to pa
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