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Sept.26 - Father Jean de Brebeuf .docx

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HIST 2500
William Wicken

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23 September - 29 September September 26: Father Jean de Brebeuf Reading: Bumsted, pp. 37-50 including texts on Champlain (p. 41), Father Le Jeune (p. 43), Marie de l’Incarnation (p. 45), and Francois de Laval (p. 46) • 40 • 1627 cardinal Richelieu assumed supervision of New France and established company of one hundred associates • England and France had gone into war in 1627 and in July 1628 the company ships were captured and thus began a military struggle between France and Britain for control of North America lasting more than a century • France was always under military pressure from England of aboriginals • 41 • Champlins New France • 1603 Pierre du Gus de monts was granted a trading monopoly in northeastern North America in return for an obligation to settle 60 colonists each year and to establish missions among the aboriginals • One of the first settlers he recruited was Samuel de Champlain to serve as a geographer • Much of his carrier was spent dealing with preliminaries of settlement in interests of which he sailed to France nine times to further this plans for colonization or to resist attempt to negate them • Literary legacy teaching most about what we know regarding New France • New France map • New France fights for survival • 1629 David kirks sent Angloscottish army to force Champlain outpost on st Lawrence to surrender • Champlain died on Christmas 1635 • Next decade wars were mainly catholic vs aboriginal fighting for control of fur trade • 42 • Arguments between Iroquois and Algonquin created fear and consequences for Huron people on the middle • Seneca's destroyed mission of st Joseph and killed 700 Hurons • 1200 Iroquois destroyed St. Louis where jean de Brebeuf was tortured to death • 43 • Father le jeune on the conversion of the savages, 1634 • Check the progress of those who over throw religion and make ourselves feared by the Iroquois • Send a number of capable men to clear and cultivate the land • Convince them so settle and make the lands and homes and find food • Make schools with Jesus teaching teachers • Huron were victims of European ethnocentrism • Hurons turned against missionaries and blamed them for their problems • In exposing the Huron to disease and weakening their culture by introducing alien spiritual elements, the missionaries may have inadvertently contributed to the destruction of Huronia • 44 • If the missionaries had only limited success with the First Nations, their influence on the early European population of Canada was far more positive • Missionaries had the Jesuits and the lay missionaries • Jesuits could adapt Christianity to any culture and less rigid than missionaries • 45 • Marie de lincarantion • Experienced two miracles • Husband died within two years of marriage, leaving her a son • God told her in a dream to go to Canada • Founded a school there and spent the rest of her life running it • Wrote letters and dictionaries and helps us better understand New France now • Marie Madeline de chauvigny de la peltrie helped with the school and founded a hospital • Much of mid 17th century Canada would be largely dominated by the energy of its leading women missionaries • 46 • Francis de Laval • Born into the church and became a missionary • Needed legitimization and a church • Became first bishop of Quebec • Argued on a moral and political front • 47 • 1647 Canada adopted government by a central council with elevated representatives of the districts of Quebec • Iroquois moved attacks toward Montreal • French tried to to avoid Iroquois for fur trade • Many we're happy to trade furs for financial security and military aid • Orphan girls sent over to raise population • 48 • The government had begun an effort to deal with the Iroquois menace and to reform both the administrative and economic structure of New France • The maritime region • 1629 Quebec was captured by the kirkes • Charles de saint de la tour claimed governed of Acadia • Accepted Nova Scotia for himself • Wasn't allowed back into Europe • Father Champlain was a visionary to Canada • 49 Alfred E. Crosby, Jr. ‘Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in Aboriginal Depopulation of America,’ William and Mary Quarterly, 3 series, (April 1976), 289-99. (available via eresources). [ Virgin.pdf] • The latest generation of americanists chiefly blames diseases imported from the old world for the disparity between the number of american aborigines in 1492 • Virgin soil epidemics are those in which the population at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunological almost defenceless • The importance of virgin soil epidemics in american history is strongly indicated by evidence that a number of dangerous maladies (smallpox, measles, malaria,yellow fever) were unknown in the pre columbian new world • The british tended to drive the indians away, rather than ensnaring them as slaves as the spaniards did • 1616-1619 bubonic swept costal new england killing 9 outta 10 • 1630 small pox wiped half of aboriginal population • The hypothesis of genetic weakness holds that during the pre columbian millennia the new world indians had no occasion to build up immunities to such diseases as smallpox and measles • The native americans have no special susceptibility to old world diseases that cannot be attributed to environmental influences and probably never did have • Europes most famous virgin soil epidemic (the black death) lasted 100-200 years • The indians and eskimos did not experience the onslaught of old war diseases all at the same time and the other factors were also responsible for dispersion population levels • Old war diseases were the chief determinants in the demographic histories of particular tribes for 10-150 years after each tribe first full exposure to them • The newcomesrs reduced original populations by warefare, murder and interbreeding • 1952 indians and eskimos of north quebec had measles and 99% became sick and 7% died • The reasons for the massive losses to epidemics in the last 400 years and the considerable losses to the epidemics just cited can be grouped conveniently in 2 categories: 1) the nature of diseas
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