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Oct 3- Eunice Williams .docx

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York University
HIST 2500
William Wicken

October 3: Eunice Williams Broad Themes: wars of the late 1600s and early 1700s; captivity narratives and the blurred lines between European and aboriginal cultures Reading: Bumsted, pp. 48-70, including embedded texts on Plaisance (p. 62), Louisbourg, (pp. 66-7). • 49 By 1660 several communities of permanent settlers totaling 1500 ad taken hold along the rocky • coast of the english shore • Consisting of servants, planter employers and a planter gentry of literate merchants • Fishing incomes were good • 51 • The elite were dominated by kurke family, active in the Canadian trade and buccaneering and Newfoundland sack trade of 1630/1640 and became original investors in the hudson bay company • Widows found opportunities for autonomy in business enterprises • New found land is one of the earliest sites of the new world for English colonization • New found land provided wealth to british empire n form of fish • Irish were being pushed out of ireland by famine and unemployment and were attracted to Newfoundland by the cheap fare for the voyage combined with work prospects 1750-1815 irish catholics made way to Newfoundland • • The part of newfrance along the st Lawrence known as canada mixed french with NA environment • French background provided institutions, a terminology with which to express them and a set of assumptions about how society ought to be organized and operated • French assumed an ordered and hierarchical society with the various social orders stayed in their places and duly subordinated themselves to the good of the whole • Sought to reform old world by stripping them of centuries of european tradition that had decentralized power and limited royal authority The environment provided a set of daily realities that worked against european institutions and • assumptions • Result was a society that refracted the metropolis in france through the dual prisms for royal reform and north american experience • Royal takeover of 1663 put french administrative policy for the colonies and its execution in hands of jean baptise colbert and jean talon • Strenthg royal government and expand french economy • Establish the position of intendant (royal official who had been designated to cut through accretion of centuries of devolution of royal power and to act decisively on behalf of the state • 53 • The governor was responsible for military affairs, external relations, colony connections with church including education • Established an administrative and institutional structure for the entire century of french royal control • Canada was ruled by the sovereign council, made up mainly of the colonys elite and presided over by the intendant • Most canadian riots were over food shortages • Church was a major component of the government Main political task was to establish due subordination to spiritual and secular authority • • State dominated between church and state Canada had been born in deep Catholic piety and catholic orthodoxy remained the norm • • Because canada was continually in a state of siege, the role of the military was crucial 54 • • From 1669 entire male population of colony between 16-60 were required to serve in militia • Canadian had reputation of harsh climate and absence of amentities • French authorities wanted an agricultural surplus and exploitation of timber resources, enabling the colony to supply french west indies with goods currently being obtained by the english • Economy we slow to diversify • 55 • Fur trade merchants were almost exclusively canadian born • Pays d’en haut • Some fur traders, especially those who had married native women began to establish themselves in settlements along the river system • 56 th • French fur traders travelled far west as rocky mountains in first half of 18 century • Overseas trade was complicated and dangerous, most merchants operated through family and clan connections • Death of husband led to women taking over local enterprise Trading economy which the merchants presided required peace and stability to perform at tits • best • Suffered from chronic shortage of medium of exchange, led to colony produce its own paper money using decks of playing cards inscribed in various denominations and signed by the intendant • Constant need for craftsmen who worked for the church, providing fainter, ornaments and decorations • 2 major attempts to industrially new france were in in 1730 • Ironworks near trios riveres Shipyard at quebec • • 57 Both needed large state subsidy to survive but demonstrated Canadian worksmen could be • mobilized for industrial activity and could manufacture serviceable goods on a large scale • Agriculture was always dominant form of economic activity along st Lawrence, functioning around seigneurial system • State made property concessions to landlords who were supposed to find settlers to serve as tenants • 58/59 • Montreal and quebec gave canada an urban life and proportionately larger urban population than that of most NA colonies • Centers of government , direction of economic activity, church and social services (health care/education) Slavery was never prohibited in canada and no large plantations to employ a slave workforce • • Mainly domestic servants • 60 • Organization of society continued to be fundamentally patriarchal, women in traditional role of helpmate and childbearer • Shortage of marriageable women and absence of men on the frontier or military somewhat moderated oppression • 18 century birthrates ran 50 per 1000 inhabitants per annum • Women bore 7 children • Child birth was great danger • Parts of canada spoke different forms of canadian mixed with aboriginal terms • 63 • Oral vs visual rather than via print and literacy • Great emphasis on music • Culture was expressed through folktales and fairy stories (oral over written) • French usage still prevailed • 62 - Plaisance • Last well known NA colonies of Europe was Placentia (gulf side of avalon peninsula) • French access to atlantic region was challenged (esp beaches of NFL) • Fishery remained important imperial factor for all european nations French navil riders until turned to england in 1713 • • 63 - first three anglo-french wars The war of the league of Augsburg (1689-1697), settled by treaty of ryswick • • The war of the spanish succession (1702-1713), settled by treaty of utrecht The war of austrian succession (1744-1748), settled by the treaty of aix-la-chapelle • • Colonists employing own military methods • French sent out raiding parties on land and sea to keep British colonies disunited and off balance • French hoped british wouldn't be able to utilize their superior manpower, resources and command of the sea to invade and capture french touristy • British unsuccessfully attempted to invade st. Lawrence first two wars • Third British captured lousiburg in 1745, leading to dispatch of major french fleet to NA in 1746 • 1713 forced to give up acadia and claims to Newfoundland Acadia and nova scotia • • Acadia had been contested grounds between british and french since early european settlement Returned to france in 1670 • • Capture in 1690 but returned by treaty of ryseick New england succeeded to take port royal (acadia) in 1710 • • 66 • Between 1660 and 1713 acadians expanded and increased amount of touristy cultivated •
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