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Lecture

Oct 24 - Molly and Joseph Brant .docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 2500
Professor
William Wicken

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21 October - 27 October October 24: Molly and Joseph Brant Readings: Bumsted, pp. 91-112, including embedded texts on The Americans Attack Quebec (p. 94), Molly Brant (p. 95), An American Privateering Raid (p. 96), The Dirary of Sarah Frost (p. 102), The ‘Book of Negroes’ (p. 104), Shelburne (p. 106), and Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim Simcoe (p. 109) • The First American Civil War • Early April 1775 british troops, wanting to raid clandestine colonial arms deposit in Massachusetts, were fired upon by americans • Shooting war • Americans felt they were involved in a revolution to secure their rights against arbitrary authority of the british crown • British felt americans were in a rebellion against dull authority • British north american inhabitants were now involved in extended civil war • Many exiles • Seeing the people of northernmost colonies as impotent victims of american revolution taking place to the south, it makes far more sense to view them as participants in a great civil war that affected the who transatlantic region of britains vast empire • 1775 americans moved quickly to establish a new government and raise an army under command of george Washington of virgina • One army ordered to proceed to quebec by way of lake champlain and richelieu river • Another to travel across northern main and along chaudiere river to st. Lawrence • Iroquois would remain neutral until forced to side with british later in the war • Americans werent as organized • Soldiers kept dying off or fleeing • June 1776 americans had completely fleeted • Fort cumberland • Loyalists vs rebel • 1775-1781 pirates caused good shortages in nfl • They attacked farming land between nfl and st john 1 • Everyone lived near american border, everyone lived in fear of attack • Americans attack quebec, 1776 • 4am, americas go from behind on heights of Abraham • Men of every age fought • Synchnroized shooting • The french (?) retreated • Flower of rebel army fell • Insecurity of the time made christianity a success - the great awakening • Henry alline Rejected self government of the godly - christ was the way • Music asa way to attract and hold an audience • His followers were new lights • Moses hazen committed himself to united states and appointed the continental congress to command a regiment he was to raise in canada • Recruited 100s of habitants who retreated with him • His men (and the nova scotia refugees) ultimately were compensated by american congress with land and financial assistance • Molly (mary) brant • Born from mohawk family in NY 1736-1796 • 1753 mother married brant and brought children into upper reaches of mohawk society • Molly was sir williams house keeper bc rich • Good relationship creating the peace treaty of fort stanwix --soon surrendered by american rev. • Sir William died 1774 after another peace gathering • Molly was left property and now the head of iroquois clan • Started a store and when rebellion against king, she stayed faithful to the crown • She counselled loyalty and collected info she could on patriot plans, warning her bother Joseph of a colonial army that was met and defeated by oriskany • She was always suspected by rebels • She opposed peace with rebels and declared the need for friendship with the king of england • Moved from fort niagra to Montreal then 6 nations settlement at carleton island NY then 1783 to kingston ontario 2 • Committed to loyalist • For Iroquois neutrality proved impossible • Mohawk leader Joseph brant became persuaded continuing an active alliance with british that they could protect the interest of native people by preserving their land from encroachment of european settlement • Brant and molly were un able to convince Iroquois council but recruited force of 300 aboriginal warriors and 100 loyalist settlers who were active in scouting and raiding operations • Americans responded to such activity in 1779 with a major expedition into the land or irquois, laying waste of the country • American Privateering raid • April 9th 1778 • Going to halifax • Privateer encountered and took 40 gallons of rum • The Iroquois and Brant, were forced to retreat to fort niagara, where they became supplicants for british aid • Farther west in fur trading country, native peoples were better able to ignore the war • Western fur trade was unaffected by the american revolution • Western movement by Montreal based fur trade now dominated by english speaking traders continued un abated • 1778 peter pond broke into richest fur trade country of continent, athabasca • Trading competition was always a mixed blessing to the native people---gave them a choice and lower price but because native consumer had a relatively inelastic need for trade goods, competition also increased in amount go nonmaterial and non essential consumer goods on offer, particularly tobacco and alcohol, which was a negative feature • Any official British attempts to limit settler intrusions in the ohio country were ended by the american assumption of independence • American sought to keep aboriginals neutral, while British wanted their active minatory assistance • Treaty of paris 1783 ignored first nations • Their lands in west were transferred to united states • Aboriginals were now at the mercy of punitive american military expeditions and advancing settlement • Many of the more militant first nations leaders would support the british in the war of 1812, finding little joy in the eventual military stalemate • Outside of trans-appalachian west, British assumed after 1763 in most eastern places the first nations were a declining people who needed to be integrated into european population as quickly as possible 3 • aboriginals who insisted on maintaining old ways were shoved to margins of society and driven to extinction • Tecumseh • Means shooting star born around 1768 in ohio • Battle of falling timbers in 1794 and helped translate prophetic teachings of his bother Tenskwatawa into a movement devoted to holding onto first nations land • Great spirt above has appointed this place for us, light our fires and we will remain • Great spirit doesnt acknowledge any boundaries • 1808 unified to put all first nations under one banned but movement lost credibility when they failed to halt americans and were badly beaten in battle by William hull 1811 • Wanted to join british in effort of resistance against americans • Led a war party into upper canada in June 1812 • 600 native warriors cutting general William hulls supply line and supported Isaac brocks aggrieve scheme to attack Detroit • 1813 head of even stronger fight at fort meigs • Stopped to prevent slottering and became a humane leader • 1813 battle of moraviantown he was killed and body disappeared • Upper canada and northwestern region british maintained orderly frontier • Legal procedure of for the orderly purchase of lands, reservation to aboringals of sufficient land on which to make a living and in upper Canada the full application of legal rights under the law whenever possible • Try to distinguish canada symbolically from US • Application of common law to everybody, including aboriginals both because common law was a bulwark of tory ideology and because it provided a framework for good government • Avoid unnecessary violence and warfare and to reeducate aboriginal people into new order • Law centred approach assumed first nations did not become a part of society until they were thoroughly integrated into Europe's hierarchies and authority structure • Appearance in March 1778 of captain james cook in resolution cove off western cost of vancouver island • Cook was on quest to find north west passage • Visitors were impressed with trading acumen and principal trading commodity: sleek otter fur • Cook was killed on return voyage through pacific to england 4 • British lost war of american revolution • British brought in loyalist,rebels to try and help them win • French joined american side • Help of french navy, americans succeeded in 1781 in trapping large contingent of british army under lord cornwallis in Virginia • Surrender of cornwallis was really end of line for british • In winning they: Recognized independence of united states, allowed new nation fight right in atlantic and gave to it the entire ohio valley • The british negotiators failed to insist on any real security for either their aboriginal allies or the loyalist • Accommodating the loyalists • From beginning of revolutionary conflict, some colonials had supported the british • Many were pressured by events into choosing sides and ended up with great Britain • The british were prepared to make extensive grants of land to these new arrivals and to support them with supplies while they remade their lives • 40,000 loyalists. 3000 were black in nova scotia. 2000 were aboriginals in upper canada. 20,000 were civilian refugees and their families • Rest were men from former loyalists or from british regiments • Substantial were from scotland, Ireland or german principalities • Though some were female, most loyalists were males who got land grants, served in the military and received stores • 14% were women • Loss of homes and cherished contents were most traumatic for loyalist women than were property losses for men • From first days of the war, british military authorities in america had attempted to enlist some of the half million slaves to fight against their masters, promising them freedom • Black became part of the mobile population of the region, taking up whatever employment was available • An unknown number of blacks who were bought to british north america as slaves by loyalists masters continued in that status until the early years of the nineteenth century when local courts ruled slavery out o existence in the colonies by extending english laws • Throughout the war british played on first nations fear that americans intended to settle in large numbers on their ancestral lands • First nations were abandoned by british in rush for extrication from unpopular and expensive war 5 • Britain transferred sovereignty over land south of great lakes and to the Mississippi river to americas -- ignoring it was claimed by aboriginal allies • The diary of sarah frost • May 25 1783: voyage of loyalist sufferes to nova scotia with 250 passenger and 6 families per cabin • Jun 25: measles out break • Jun 26: sight of land again and bay of fundy in a day • Jun 28: arrive st johns river, told their land is 25 miles away • Jun 29:rough lands. Land is now 60 miles away and given tomorrow with no shelter for tonight • Native refugees were given a grant of land along grand river in what would become upper canada • Loyalist relocation with colony of o
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