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Oct 17- James Wolfe .docx

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York University
HIST 2500
William Wicken

14 October - 20 October October 17: James Wolfe Reading: Bumsted, 70-91 including embedded texts on the Acadians (pp. 71-2), and the Lords of Trade (pp.87-8); • A contemporary Acadian Account • Acadians agreed to pledge oath and were still exiled • The seven year war • 1756 Europe • Struggle between european and french for allegiance of the aboriginal peoples in ohio country and for sovereignty over the region came to a head • French 1749 military expedition British then sent george washington asking the French to leave • • 1750 british sent 150 men, backed by aboriginals, to establish fort on ohio--confronted 30 men french party • May 1754 jumonville died • This upset french and they sent out much larger force to get virginians to surrender • However marginal regions were, they were all affected by larger regions • French destroyed british regulars in 1755 • 1756 took 1700 prisoners • 1757 french won lake route into canada in NY • 1758 british won fort fontenac • British made their army bigger and controlled the sea • Civilian government and military leadership were at constant loggerheads and morale was very low • Conclusion • 1759 situation was grave for new france • After more than a century and a half of successful struggle against environment, first nations enemies, french neglect and british hostilities, canadians had back against the wall • Acadians had been forcibly revoked from nova Scotia and lousibourg had been captured • Rich british governments wanted invasion of st. Lawrence • French were loosing power CHAPTER 3 • British establish foothold in canada with victory at battle of quebec in 1759--consolidated their position in 1760 • Theory was eliminating the french would stabilize NA • Anyone after acadians left were considered british loyalist • 1812 american declared war of great Britain • The conquest and its aftermath • Best military force ever known assembled at louisburg over winter of 1758-1759--while frozen ice of st Lawrence isolated French British force had 8600 troops, 13500 sailors • • General james wolfe • British went up the cliffs and succeed in possessing quebec • French army escaped and would fight for another year • Battle of quebec was fought almost entirely on european rather than american terms • Backed by a government at home with regular troops and naval support the british finally breached the defensive position that the french had enjoyed for over a century British reinforcements arrived first on st Lawrence in 1760 • • Accepted french as canadas main language • Peace negotiations didnt go through • Britain beat French and went onto spain (who had joined french side) • France gave some american land inorder for fishing rights in Newfoundland and small islands Britain kept spain’s florida • • Needed an american policy • Proclamation of 1763 • Beyond atlantic coast were to be aboriginal land and any trading regulated by imperial government • Aboriginal uprising - pontiac’s rebellion • Declaration of limits for american westward expansion and need to finance Britons new military would enrage American colonials British did not wish to populate the northernmost colonies with emigrants from the mother country • • Industrial revolution in england and wanted to retain its people • British hoped the new immigration would outnumber and overwhelm the french in quebec • From the proclamation to the rebellion • Foreign protestants New england planters were farmers, fishermen settling in acadian land and outport • • The planters had been promised not only cheap land but liberty of conscience and a government like those of neighbouring colonies, a guarantee they took to mean that they could replicate the participatory local democracy of their former homes • By 1767 nova Scotia had 11.072 people 707 in cape breton and 1196 in new brunswick • Heterogenous population of 11228 protestants and 2246 catholics 95 black and scattering indians • • The lord of trade and policy for the west • Want to take indian land bc best land? • Make laws to prevent other countries form invading • Laws must be enforced by garrisons at posts and forts in the country • Dont alow settlers on certain land • Land surface distributed by lottery • Many french culture and laws kept in quebec • With adjustment to circumstance, the overall vision for society was quiet compatible with that of the old regime of new france • Americas to the south became more resistant • Governor guy carleton began pacification of the south instead Carleton recognized the clergy and the seigneurs as natural leaders who could be won over if their • rights and privileges were protected • Result was the quebec act of 1774 • If follow religion of rome, given free exercise of their religion and exempted from traditional oaths of supremacy • All matters relating to property and vicil rights were to be decided by the traditional laws of canda Didnt appreciate connection between french and aboriginals through trade and marriage • • The british did not trust these people who often took aboriginal names • British began discouraging fur trade from moving into lower great lakes • British traders would do better in northwest where no trading had been found previously Robin Winks, ‘Slavery, the Loyalists and English Canada, 1760-1801’ in Walker, ed., The History of Immigration, pp. 27-40 • Treaty of paris in 1763 - france ceded the whole mainland north american empire east of Mississippi to great Britain • Transfer of power was legal strengthening of slavery in canada • Slave owners property would be respected between 1763-1790 added the british government • Pierre rigaud treaty of capitulation #47 affirmed all slaves would remain the possession of their masters, they might continue to be sold and that they could be instructed in roman catholic faith • All slaves must go to Detroit Treaty of paris introduced english criminal law and civil law to quebec, expiring slaves of those few • protection proved by the code noir • Britain preserved the french laws for lower canada while introducing english civil law into upper canada • English criminal law was applied in both canadas • English civil law contained no effective strictures against slavery • Imperial act of 1790 - could import furniture, clothing and slaves Slavery continued under the british as under the french • • 1749 british government offered passage, provision, muskets and ammunition to settlers and free negroes were included • Loyalist migration brought first major influx of negros to maritimes Slaves were baptized, given limited education, kept together in families • • Loyalist had already been moving toward antislavery positions and tended to look upon slavery as too closely associated with new public which they hated • They brought popularity and ended it in 2 years • British offered emancipation to all slaves who volunteered to serve with their forces • Negros sought refuge in the province throughout the revolutionary war and most quite naturally claimed to be free men; nor could effective controls be applied to the sale of slaves around Detroit, especially th
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