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Nov 14: Susanna Moodie.docx

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HIST 2500
William Wicken

11 November - 17 November November 14: Susanna Moodie Reading: Bumsted, pp. 122-52 including embedded texts on Sealing in Newfoundland (p. 127), The Shipbuilding Industry (p. 131), Advice for Immigrants (p. 138), Clearing a Farm (p. 143), Angelique Pilotte (p. 145), and Peter Jones (p. 147). • end of war of 1812 provinces of british america began to develop economics • economies based on exploitation of rich natural resource base of the country resource economy relied heavily on transatlantic markets and took full advantage of imperial trade • advantages whenever they could be found • trade to caribbean expanded • few concentrated on american market • too similar in reliance on primary resources to develop much interdependence the society that took shape within the resource economy depended heavily on immigration from the british isles to fuel its growth • french canada continued to survive and even flourished • deviate americanized culture (chiefly attributable to the loyalists) to a more hybrid culture that consciously looked to great britian for its priorities • the resource economy • british america began post war period of peace after 1815, limited economy, heavily dependent on british finical aid • 1840 rich inheritance of natural resources and a growing transatlantic carrying trade • economic growth worked with new immigrants • fish, fur, timber, grain and ancillary industries represented over 90% of all economic activity in british america at the time • natural resources needed a market and before 1840 the market was in the UK where trade policies remained favourable to colonial raw materials 1840 britian shifted to policy of international free trade • • colonial economy based on natural resources was inevitably one that depended on international and transatlantic trade • people exploited those working for them and exploited by merchants who handled the commercial system of marketing • attempt to maximize production by ruthlessly exploiting the resource regardless of economic conditions • small capitalist, primary producer identified with commercial system rather than with his labour force, impending the development of any working class consciousness or the formation of an articulated class structure • merchants had to be successful entrepreneurs, found it difficult to over beyond their immediate commercial horizons • prepared to invest raw materials within their own sphere of interest but not outside of it • result was an economy that could celebrate the values of an independent yeomanry at the same time that it took advantage of a labour force no composed of those yeomen • the staple resources • fishery was oldest and most rewarding of british americas resource commodities • fur trade was other traditional resource industry the fur trade had a remake able influence in the west, because furs were its only export commodity • • entire region was organized politically and economically around the trade • fish and fur were replace by timber and grain in primary economic importance in the nineteenth century • not until 1840s did britian begin seriously to eliminate the differential duty scales that the corn laws and timber laws had created during the napoleonic wars • colonials may have been chained economically to the mother country, they were revelled in the chains and were loath to break them • every province of british america except NFL quickly became involve in the timber trade after napoleon close the baltic (traditional source of british supply) in 1807 • growth forests were cut as quickly as possible with no thought for either conservation or oversupplying the market • newbrunswick dependence on timber as an export commodity had become almost complete by the mid 1820s • Sealing in newfoundland • caught a seal, knocked its head and skinned it for rum, cut of flippers • caught many youths • settlement was closely connected to the opening of new timber territory • the few timber princes who controlled the licenses to cu on crown land were also the leading politicians of the province • provisioning the timber was a lucrative deal • before 1840 the export market for upper Canadian timber was somewhat limited by transportation difficulties, but after that date the untied styes took all the timber upper Canada could produce • first ethic conflict in british america occurred in the shiners war of 1830, irish timberers fought with french Canadians for dominance of forests • extensive agricultural lands of st lawerence valley and upper canada, wheat quickly became the dominant crop • exhausted best soil because of wheat and began looking westward most farmers produced for their own consumption and some produced livestock and potatoes for export • or supplied a local market with produce • the mercantile system • resource economy worked ply because of its capacity to deal with international market • merchant capitalist looked after transportation and marketing in a world of totally unsophisticated credit and banking merchants operated at all levels of volume and capital investment • • growing extent of resource trade demanded entrepreneurs with more capital • international merchatile activity in first half of 19th century was dangerous—- financial disaster (ships lost at sea, miscalculations, debtors refuse to pay) • communications were slow • the sailing ship, filled with outgoing cargoes of resource commodities and incoming ones of manufactured goods and new immigrants, remaining the backbone of british american economic system in the period • british american manufacturing by artisans producing for local market goods and searches that either could not be imposed profitably or could not be imposed at all • the production involved the processing of resource commodities • grain to whiskey, to beer and flour wood burned into potash, timber • • shipbuilding was ideal colonial processing industry—relied on rich natural resource timber that british america had plenty • the shipbuilding industry • shipyards could be found anywhere in british america where forests met open water • merchants sometimes owned shipyard but it was mainly controlled by master shipbuilders of limited capital resources • usually made my local wood by local carpenters paid in rum • shipbuilding was a seasonal activity—warmer months • 1840 merchant marine of british american colonies were one of largest in the world • early as 1840 wood and sail were being overtaken by iron and steam • canal building beam the craze—opened water access into lake ontario or improved the st.lawerence • thrust to enable the economy to shift from transatlantic focus to an internal one • trade and commerce were the basis of urban growth, although the major cities of the british colonies of north america were centres of political activity as well as of commerce • easier to flourish without being a capital than without trade • for more urban cities in british america, 1840 marked the break between remaining an 18th century town and becoming a 19th century city • immigration • resistance to emigration from british government and british ruling classes were quickly broken by unemployment and a new round of industrialization and agricultural rationalization • pressures increased on britians relief system for the poor and those who governed the nation common wisdom again was british was overpopulated • immigrants came to british america to obtain access to land (difficult to attain in british isles) • scottish emigration remained steady through the period 10-15% flow • irish immigration ranged from 30-70%only in mid 1840 were irish catholic, instead of all prostent, immigrate • british america got more irish emigrants than US • more Protestants and orangists than ddid that to US where emigrants were almost exclusively catholics from the south • they kept their language and culture though • those going to the US tended to travel in large vessels specifically designed to carry passengers, while those going to british america travelled in smaller vessels designed for timber trade • port of quebec was principal entry for immigrants into canals because ailing vessels could collect a load of timber for their voyage to britian • passage to british america cost significantly less than US • difference of cost and shorter duration of passage from british isles to eastern seaports of british america it seems likely immigrants go to british amerce sailed on extremely limited budgets without much capital in reserve was the case for those who went to US only those with considerable capital or willing to acquire considerable debt could afford to sail at all • • many arriving to British america without capital intended to move to US when they and acquired capital • many first lived with family or friends • unlike british america, US required immigrants to assimilate asap to dominant society • four patterns of organized emigration and settlement developed after 1815 • 1) government assistance - combination of british official recruitment of emigrants and settlement with public aid on land made abatable by colonial governments • 2) empahsized settlement on the land—private proprietors of land, financial assistance and made land affordable (canada company, british a
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