Class Notes (811,170)
Canada (494,539)
York University (33,712)
History (957)
HIST 2500 (93)

Nov 21- Louis-Joseph Papineau .docx

14 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
HIST 2500
William Wicken

18 November - 24 November November 21: Louis-Joseph Papineau Readings: Bumsted, pp. 152-63, including embedded texts on Louis-Joseph Papineau (p.156), Charles Duncombe (p. 157), The Battle of St. Denis (pp. 158-9), Historic Sites (p. 162); • The politics of the Elite • politics of the resource society in flux • 1820 governments of british america was becoming ensconced in power • each colonial government was headed by a governor appointed in england and usually a military man • upper canada - family compact • lower canada - chateau clique • nova scotia - the system • pei - the cabal • believed in the need to increase the prosperity of their colonies and usually attempted to mediate among the conflicting interests that emerged, provided they remained orderly • most oligarchies favoured government intervention in the economy—-through creation of new infrastructure such as banks, roads and canals • popularity elected assembly had a limited role in the process of government • 1820 assemblies did not yet have control of the revenue or finances of the provinces, much less any real involvement in their administration, although they gained control over more revenue in 1830s • under constitutional arrangement, political conflict could take a number of forms • after 1820, conflict involved a fierce struggle between the administration and the leaders of an assembly eager to expand its prerogatives and authority • new generation of political leaders emerged who were willing to invoke popular support on behalf of their attacks on the prevailing governments • reform was no more monolithic than the oligarchies • one group of reformers represented the radicals, the other consisted of various factions with more moderate voices of the english constitution and british rights and liberties • moderate reformers did not wish to eliminate the imperial connection but instead wanted to employ it to obtain a colonial constitution that more closely resembled what they thought was the of the mother country • many members were former americans and play roles in rebellions in 1837-1838 • william lyoin mackenzie 1797-1861 of upper cananda • louis - joseph papineau 1786-1871 of lower canada • joseph howe of nova scotia 1804-1873 • william cooper of PEI 1786-1867 • all believed in importance of the independent cultivator of soil, displaying profound hostility to commerce, the merchant classes and expensive economic development by the public sector • equlity of conditions and opportunity was what mattered • william cooper—PEI people stripped of land and redistributed to those who actually tilled the soil • 1830 both Papineau and Mackenzie turned to the american ideas of jacksonian democracy where they found themselves unable either to persuade the british government of the inadequacy of existing constitutional arrangements of to alter the system by political activity • wanted to overturn the corrupt oligarchies that ran their respective provinces and replace them with administrations that would be responsible to the price as repented in the elected house of assembly • as a result of their again and anti commercial assumptions, the public improvements paid for by the public purse of sponsored by the government represented an unnecessary financial burden on the taxpayers being in effect class legislation • mackenzie—the true source of a country wealth was labour usefully and prudently applied • papineau in lower canada (active economic state being dominated by British mercantile class) which promoted capitalism • struggle between commercial capitalism and agrarian idealism that we must understand both tory commitment to public involvement in economic activity and the reform opposition • political reformers had no conception that economic development could be directed by the government on behalf of the people • tried to reduce the influence of government on the lives of the population, as well as to limit the temptation of special privilege • reform and rebellion • 1837 frustration of the reformers in canada led to rebellion • attempt to coordinate large scale violence to over throw the government of the canadas by force • political events, cultural manifestations—subterranean pressures resulting from agrarian discontent, lower canada— as an expression of anglo french animosity • Louis - Joseph Papineau • 1786-1871 • educated as a lawyer • 1809 elected to the legislative assembly of lower canada • leader of parti canadien • over the years his commitment to births institutions decreased and became more attached to american model of jacksonian democracy, sought to eliminate political privilege without radical social change • commitment to survival of beleaguered french canada increased • tried to become leader of 1837 rebellion but couldn't understand aspirations of the rebels • fled to US returned to canada in 1805 • rebellion of 1837 was unsuccessful challenges to the stability fo the urban elite political cultures of the canadas • assembly leaders (william and louis joseph) had become frustrated in attempts to wrest control of the government from the hands of the powerful cliques of toronto and quebec and put it in the hands of the popularly elected assemblies • assemblies could not be manipulated by oligarchy • popular partiers were dominated by members of regional elites who were more representative of the grassroots countryside • regional elites wanted a more open political culture • the rebellions marked the first of a series of movements of canadian history to decentralize authority and political power • popular resistance which was more interested in economic grievances, class issues and land reform • came together 1837 lower canada and then upper canada • charles duncombe to robert david burford • reformers ought ought be on aper in forming political unions and in organizing for our common safety • object is to make rich richer and poor poorer bc if the people become wealthy they would become intelligent and unwilling slaves • encourage circulation of reform newspapers by union • parti paritote dominated lower house than had the reformers in upper canada • party in conflict in lower canada had long since taken on racial overtones • parti canadian was dominated by french canadian professionals who represented the regional elites and who had no hope of gaining admission to ruling chateau clique • the battle of st. denis • seven oaks 1816 (forces meet by surprise and inflict damage upon one another st denis small village northeast of montreal) • political agitation of assembly member louis bourdages support wolfed nelson • nelson member of prominent loyalist family married aristocratic french candian and converted to catholic french canandian side • fears of government action against partite leaders • shooting began in the village • small number of casualties • british determined to withdraw, leaving their cannon behind • 12 patriotes died while 6 british died and 6 missing • authorities blamed loss on bad weather and bad leadership but patriotes were good fighters • st. denies was only patriote victory in 1837 • part of the reason for the ineffectuality of the rebellions was that there was little relationship between reform leaders (operating within elite system even while trying to change it) and popular opinion (responding to economic collapse of the international wheat market in 1830 • insurrection —moderate members of elite leadership of reformer left to be replace by armed farmers • narrow agenda of political change and little notion how to turn upraising into organized rebellion • inorder to be eligible for pardon the accused rebel had to confess his crimes • durhamn two political solutions: introduction of responsible government and the unification of two canadas • change in land policing, general system for the sale of crown land at sufficient price and elimination of proprietorial system in PEI • conclusion: • rebellions focuses great britians attention on need for change in american colonies, durhamn recommendations for union of canadas and responsible government was adopted over the next few years • free trade, railroads, economic expansion, industrialization were more powerful engines of change than political uprisings or constitutional reform Allan. Greer, ‘1837-38: Rebellion Reconsidered’, Canadian Historical Review, vol. 76, no. 1 (March 1995),1-18 (available via eresources; see Moodle website for link or from Canadian Historical Review. • initial historical recounts of rebellion were sketchy and extreme • rebellion as a climatic episode in the long term struggle of commerce and agriculture • reformers, rebels and patriotes represented a narrow minded agrarianism opposed to the expansionist commercialism of the Montreal merchants and their tory political allies • capitalist/conservative camp was the one that grasped Canadas potential for greatness, promoted economic development and laid the foundations of a transcontinental nation • 1837 conflict came to a head but rebellion was crushed sand empire of st lawenrence gained a new lease on life • the ascendancy of mackenzie and the radical patriots had come about partly because of tory intransigence and the result was a revolt misguided in its principles and disastrous in its results • rebels of 1837 - their violence, republicanism, their failure to appreciate the wonders of the british constitution • the role of the radicals their revolt was ultimately positive for, but their foolish actions, they unwittingly summoned by a saviour in the form of lord durham • durham set in motion the liberalizing machinery that brought forth responsible government,confederation and dominion autonomy • french Canadian historiography was dominated by a catholic nationalist school best represented by abbee lionel groulx • papineau and the patriotes posed vexing problems for groulx • french canada was at its core a catholic and conservative society and difficult to ignore the democratic anti clerical and revolutionary character of the patriote movement • canada was moving towards a goal in the 19th century, whether this end point was the construction of a transcontinental, commercial and political union, the development of parliamentary government or the preservation and resurrection of french canada, it was certainly a good thing • rebellion was the necessary anomaly in this providential account of the past, the sorry fate of the insurgents serving to validate the larger pattern as well as providing canadians with powerful oral and political lessons • violence seems to be a defining feature of rebellion in many accounts and it is usually associated with the rebels, even though the violence of the government and its supporters was far more extensive and deadly • rebellion was simply the most dramatic of many lower class hell raising seduced by a vision of tolling masses in arms, find this a cheering instance of popular resistance • obstacles: comparative isolation of Canadian historiography from larger international currents and yawning chasm separating studies of lower canada and works on upper canada • events in the two provinces connects—single phenomenon • there is no reason to consider dispersal over space and diversity in form to be grounds for denying the basic unity of a revolt • both provinces had pre industrial economies and preponderance of independent farming families • anxiety about procuring new lands to settle the rising generation and government policies that threatened to restrict access to wilderness lands were naturally a matter of grave concern in these settlements • tension between town and country—conflict tended to follow a rural-urban pattern when fighting broke out in 1837 • seigneurial tenure unique to lower canada and with it went landlord habitat friction, a dynamic of rebellion in that colony • lower canna was an older settlement with a larger population that was in majority french canadian, its neighbour was expanding rapidly, thanks to the effects of agricultural property and massive immigration from the british isles • some immigrants wetted in lower canada with result that a linguistic minority of british origin shared the province with the old stock canadiens • tension between english and french in lower canada lay at the root of the civil strife of 1837-1838 • rebellion in lower canada was racial and as a consequence it was sharper than the milder strife that distributed english upper canada • upper canada was divided society with friction between british immigrants and older settlers of candian and american origin • north american born and the recent immigrants tended to gravitate to opposing camps when civil strife broke out in this racially homogenous colony • civil strife of 1837-1838 ethnocultural polarization of both sides of the ottawa river—long established settlers tending to come to blow with unassimilated newcomers • constitution of two provinces were identical, but different politics • tory parties compromised mainly of british immigrants • reform opposition, critical of existing power structures • tories had considerable electoral strength • patriote opposition in lower canada was marked by its origins as a french canadain ethic movement, though its nationalism was far less narrow by 1837 that it had been earlier • mackenzie spoke for those who took a smilier racial line in upper canada, though most reform politicians in that province favoured a more moderate approach • roughly the situation in the canadas on the eve of the rebellion • reform politicians concluded that traditional parliamentary politics were at an end; the moderates among them retired from public life, while mackenzie used his newspaper to propound the view that the current assembly was not simply of the wrong political complexion, but was illegal and illegitimate • many patriotes and radical reformers seemed to have looked forward to the day when canada would be free of the baneful domination of great britian • the threat of secession could be employed to extract concessions from the colonial office • most canadians lacked what might be called a revolutionary consciousness in 1837 is quite unremarkable, p
More Less

Related notes for HIST 2500

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.