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December 5 - George Brown .docx

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HIST 2500
William Wicken

December 5: George Brown Reading: Bumsted, pp. 166-205 including embedded texts on Mechanics Institutes (p. 175), George Brown (pp. 182-3), George Etienne Cartier (p. 184), and The Orange Order (p. 186). web of political and economic expansion, beginning around 1840 brought canadian confederation • • 1840-1871 british america became british north american and changed from a collection of loosely connected colonies in the northeastern sector of the continent, dependent n the mother country both economically and politically to a transcontinental nation called canada with diversifying international economy in the early stages of industrialization • because province of canada took the lead in nation unification - act of union: joined upper and lower canada in july 1840 • settler in 1640 would still be at home in canada in 1840 • era of political unification was first period that experience substantial technological advances, altering perception of distance and time in vast domain separated from europe by miles of ocean • with the railroad, travel became sped up • invention of telegraph and the laying of a transatlantic cable from nil in 1866 affect the perception of time as well as of distance • ability to operate to a schedule and communicate instantly completely altered the world and the way people operated within it • the mobile society • 1840-1850 british immigration to north america continued at high levels although its makeup was now quite different • proportions of new arrivals from southern ireland, mainly roman catholic, increased and the number of those landing in british america without capital was much higher, the most impoverished were usually forced into the cities since they could not afford to obtain land • potato famine in ireland drove immigration • most on way through US but hard to travel through canada west • many german speaking mennonite farmers who arrived as loyalists were found • small number of jews within this population • 1871 census 202,991 ppl of german ethinc origin in canada • but had mainly gone unnoticed in the ethnic history of canada bc when canada fought germany, many suppressed their german ethinc background • combined with the natural population increase within colonies arrival of this rode of new settlers put enormous pressure on abatable agricultural land, land suitable for staple crop farming for the market • second generation farmers accepted less desirable land or moved to the united states where a more rapid industrialization that in british north america had created new employment and where the west was open to settlement • hungry immigrants moving in , thousands of disillusioned members of the younger generation within the colonies were moving out • serious out migration came from seigneurial districts of french canada, the heart land of french candian culture, language and religion • 1830s-40,000 left. 1840s 90,000. 1850 190,000 left thousands of french canadians moved into eastern townships of canada east • • thousands of french canadians moved into cities and expanding towns of the province where they often found employment as manufacturing workers • newcomers to montreal mainly female and some found employment as domestic servants but most worked in burgeoning industries , clothing manufactures, textile production and making of tobacco products • canada west, most of movement in US before 1870 was rich agricultural districts of american midwest and beyond • constant stream of canadians crossed ohio indianan and illinois into american parries contributing to rapid settlement of minnesota and dakotas • key factor driving migrants was inability of family farm to accommodate the needs of all family members • successful farming required lots of children • big families created pressure for expansion of landholdings and departure of some of the younger generation • only men had expectations of inheritance and tendency in all british north american rural society was to send disproportionate numbers of females into cities and non agricultural employment • elder sons could look forward to becoming pillars of and local leaders in their communities • coming of age meant moving on • could move north to find more land or if stayed in west cities and towns were obvious destinations • years before 1860 saw internal expansion in atlantic region • settlers moved to less desirable and more remote lands, while others moved to major urban centres • population growth rose as immigration decreased • end of the decade, few of the older settled districts could support their natural increases in population, muchness sustain incoming immigrants • neither expansion nor seasonal migration could accommodate growing population • many began migrating to US • by 1860 over 1/3 or countries in maritime provinces were loosing ppl to US, particularly new england • correlation between rural countries (with economies largely dependent on fishing and farming) and depopulation was very high • out migration was a general phenomena, scots and irish were over represented in the ecelus and acadians underrepresented. • most departing were 15-25 • from mercantilism to free trade • by 1840 mercantile economy of british north america had reached is apex and it began to undergo considerable change • british government demolition of the imperial trading systems, which had prevailed since 17th century, instead of mercantilism, british moved to free trade • mother country wiped out protectionist advantages for her colonies • instead of transatlantic economy based on sailing ship, some of british north american began to think in terms of a continental economy • fortunately, railway came along at exact time providing possibilities for internal development and internal markets • britian resolved long standing differences with americans, making possible the negotiation of a trade treaty, providing access for british north america to the american market • reorganization of the commercial economy was the rise of industrialization • internal markets required finished goods not raw materials and colonial businesses agreed • theorists insisted freedom worked best, especially in the marketplace • 1840 british industrial economy could no longer afford luxury of proteciontism which limited its access to foreign raw material and protected markets • removed protection from corn and other raw material including timber • british still emphasized importing cheap raw material and exporting finished good overseas • they sought to trade with the entire world, instead of just colonies british free trade policies would have a tremendous psychological impact on colonial merchants • • british north american rush to export wheat and timber under the old system, before repeal of corn laws and timber duties 1846 took effect, results din collapse of prices in 1847 that would last for remainder of decade • arrival of thousands of impoverished irish immigrants, refugees from great famine of 1840s • brought sickness • canadians continue to improve canal system • argued for reciprocal free trade between british north america and us in natural products of each • britians industrial needs also contributed to the need for international beach and bilateral understandings • oregon settlement • canadians were seduced by idea of annexation of US • Many British North Americans saw annexation as the inevitable result of failure to achieve reciprocity rather than as a desirable end in itself • Canadians, especially those dependant on the wheat economy, viewed international markets (the States) as the only alternative to lost Britain • Americans did not show interest in the people doing the market until 1852 when the British gov’t decided to toughen its fishery policy • Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 - removed tariff and other barriers on a variety of enumerated goods, chiefly saw materials common to both countries; did not remove barriers on finished goods, although the Americans hoped that a more prosperous British NA would buy more American manufacturers • treaty more beneficial to british north america than to the us helps explain why americans were so eager toe ned it at the expiration of its initial 10 year term • • the rise of industrialism • reciprocity treaty encourages merchants, entrepreneur politicians to continue reconceptualizing their economic orientation. • moved from imperial context, british market was critical to a continual context —- internal markets were dominant. supplying american market in preference to british one was quite advantageous to the Canadas (esp. • Upper Canada/Canada West - these provinces had little open access to the Atlantic Ocean) • Once turned from its traditional transatlantic economy to a continental one, canada began to industrialize • One of the principle reasons why American trade in dutiable items did not expand during he 10 years of the reciprocity agreement was the manufacturing capacity British North America (particularly in the Province of Canada) grew substantially during this period • The internal market permitted agriculture in Canada West to shift partially out of grain cultivation into mixed farming • the concern for modernization led to elimination of the seigneural system in the St. Lawrence Valley by legislative fiat • bill replaced traditional seigenurial obligations with a quit rent, which gage tenants the opportunity to purchase their lands’ • economic reorientation • atlantic providjnces continued to find the olders transatlantic economy quite comfort bake • based prosperity on a shipping industry committed to the wooden sailing ship, which the region was still successfully producing • 1840-1870 was golden age of sail in atlantic region • long term technological weaknesses of the wooden sailing ship • vessels that cost less than half as much to produce as iron steamers were more than half as profitable, however they would flourish • carrying trade provided employment for thousands • produced an outward looking international orientation rather than one that focused on internal continental development • atlantic provinces sought to expand transportation links with canada (mainly railways) in terms of transatlantic linkages • province of canada saw railways as a means of continual destinations rather than as transatlantic linkages canadian rail way expansion 1850, after complete demolition of the old imperial trade system • • few routes in british north america promised to be investors shield away until the railway boom of the 1850s • mania for international development captured imaginations of canadian politicians and investors encouraged by exaggerated promises of profits resulting from railway expansion • governments had to guarantee loans and make contributions canadain government debt of 33 mil for railway • • economic linking of cities and towns in a new way • too much construction occurred in advance of a settled population that could sustain a profitable level of traffic • Bytown and prescott railway to carry timber from ottawa valley into US but unable to find much other trade canadian dilemma: trading off development against sustainability • • railway promoters insisted that their lines would promote manufacturing by reducing transport costs • railways closed distance between markets and served as a major market of industrial goods often becoming industrial manufactures themselves • grand trunk railway build a railway from toronto to montreal began by building its own rolling stock • as manufacturing grew and rehired increasing amount sod capital investment, most of the large firms were relatively recent creations • some of the old entrepreneurs successfully made the shift from commercial economy and some didn't • growth of industrialization — the introduction of manufacturing and related commerce on a large scale made labour relations and increasingly important issues in british north america • resource economy made employed large numbers of men on a seasonal basis, offering little opportunity for organization. • industrialization rationalized and stabilized the labour market • manufacturing tended to be more continuous and much of it was conducted indoors • rise of capitalistic labour market stabilized and settled the workers but did little for their bargaining position • union organization and labour militancy was local and extremely limited • most industrial action consisted of unsystematic rioting • before 1850s tendency for unions to identify with their particular trades rather than with fellow workers in other trades in other places • development of industry and rise of factories employing mechanization brought considerable change to the incipient labour movement • mechanics institutes • movement to supply adult educational opportunity for working classes, who were virtually ignored in the school and university systems began in scotland at end of 18th century and spread to london- london mechanics institute of 1823 • sought to provide self improving facilitates for working men, nabbing them to move up the social and economic ladder • mechanics instittute movement transferred to british america at end of 1820—montreal institute in 1828, toronto in 1830 • housed libraries, reading rooms publicly accessible to working class • provided classroom and lecture space fro adult education in the community • provided space for local organizations and groups to meet informally venues for visiting lectures • • awareness of science in british america was spread by mechanics institutes • practical exhibits of scientific principles were common activities at most mechanics institutes and attended • relied on government grants and largesses from wealthy benefactors who saw the value of these institutions of adult education • involved in temperance activity than in labour agitation • handful of international unions appeared in origin • women and juveniles were hard to organize • westward • mid century signs land west of lake head would not remain monopoly of the fur trade • canadian interest in west • establishment of van over island as british colony in 1848 • before then hudson bay company as custodian of all rbitish interest in west • most newcomers came from british isles land must be high proved and settlement must be led by those who could afford to bring our labourers • as settlers to work the lands • labourers constantly abandoned their masters, as they and done in early 17th century in NFL • 1838 british government had extended the hudsons bay company monopoly over the west for 21 years • fraser river, b.c. for gold • 1858 b.c becomes colony • gold required proper machinery and capital expenditure • gold seekers found employment in spinoff of the rush • settlers and government ignored land claims of indigenous ppl in the rush to exploit the land itself • 1exploitation of rich mineral wealth of the northern part of the continent • new means of ext rating gold • copper ore in 1850 crude oil by 1863 • • responsible government and reorientation of politics • no one understood importance of political patios or how they could work in responsible government • colonial governors served as party brokers rather than conceding responsible government • reform alliance of baldwin and la fontaine governing by a coalition • • rise of new political movement in canada west late 1840s • radical reform— clear grits by george brown • were democrate, populists, geographical expansionists and opponents of close connexions between church and state in a protestant sense • hostile to french canada in anglophone ways • george brown adopted representation by population - rep by pop- • gradual withdrawal of french canada into own agenda, centred n the development of nationalist aspirations and preservation of french canadian culture and society. • george brown • born in scotland 1818-1880 educated in edinborugh, joined fathers business • • maladministration • published paper in 1943 banner • left reputation as reformer and started the globe • combined new technology with detailed news coverage and branch office in london • became noted spokesman of the reform party in canada west • brown supported abolition of the clergy reserves and voluntarism in religion and public education • elected as independent reformer • representation by population, giving english canada more parliamentary seats, but h
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