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September 18, 2013 – Lecture #2.docx

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York University
HIST 2710
Bernard Luk

TEST #1 OCTOBER 23 , 2013 September 18, 2013 – Lecture #2 Farming & Civilization → Ways to secure food: - hunting & gathering - farming - nomadicism  Farming - seed + soil + water + sunlight  Food Systems in East Asia *Philippians – names after the - Rice (South East Asia/ Vietnam – requires plenty of waterSpanish King Philip who - soybean (North East Asia/ Korea) successfully conquered the - Fruits Pacific Islands - Fish, fowls, pork shorter growing season, less water - millet, sorghum, wheat - taro, yam - maize (After the Spaniards came)  Monsoons - “Seasonal Winds” / not seasonal rains - Winds from the s/sw in the summer comes from the ocean, bringing in moisture - Winds from the n/ne in the winter comes from the Mongolian dessert, thus dry wind - winds determines the climate in Asia - enough rainfall south of central China to grow rice - north of central china would be ideal to grow dry crops - Korea + Japan are exceptions because they are closer to water  Farming Technology - skills + tools developed over millennia - Land use + soil fertility o Slash & burn ▫ efficient in land use ▫ in North China, yellow dust bow from Mongolian Desert, deposited in North China, piling high over time ▫ replenishes nutrients in soil in China to continue to farm o Fallowing ▫ giving land a break (five – 10 years) ▫ use other plots in mean time ▫ plant bean crops (nitrogen fixants) to help replenish soil (1-2 seasons) ▫ crop rotation ▫ fertilization – animal & human poops for composting o maximizing available land ▫ terracing hillside ▫ reclaiming waterfronts ▫ drain swamps ▫ multiple cropping – growing several crops in same season ▫ intereaping (2 crops growing side by side) ▫ have frogs, fish, ducks in the water ▫ planting in rows ▫ water controls  Hydraulic Society - civilization around water systems - water control - level/ temp. of water - ditches/ canals - dikes & dams - wells - chain pumps  Harvesting + Storage - reaping, cutting in il - threshing, seperating grains/ stalk - huskig - milling - storing in barns  Insenstive Agriculture - little land, big population  Extensive Agircuture - small population farming on large piece of land  Subsistence Farming - farming for the market → if farming fails, fall of government → “Every mouthful comes from hard work” September 25, 2013 – Lecture #3 Important Points on the Map of East Asia → Yellow River – Yellow dust sticks together, creating yellow silt (deposited by winter monsoons), then washed out to the sea → Yellow Sea, named because it is yellow in colour water flows out from the Yellow River(between China and Japan) → Yalu River - Separates Korea from the continent → Hokkaido – North Sea Territory → Shikoku – 4 Countries, island ruled by four different countries during medieval times → Kyushu – 9 provinces, the island was originally four provinces during medieval times → Yangzi River – longest river in China → West River – has two companies, the North and West River, they meet in Canton → Red River – flows through Northern Vietnam through soil that is red in colour → Himalaya Mountains – elevation in Asia: higher in the west because of the mountains Fortune Telling/ Oracle Bones: take a bone, heat up a piece of metal (bronze) apply the hot bronze to the bone and then it would crack, the fortunate teller would be able to read the cracks ▫ Turtle Shells ▫ Cow’s shoulder blades - Hundreds of bones had just been recently found 100 years ago, lead to the study of the oldest language in China, since the Shang Dynasty Language / Written Language - 100 years ago, the Chinese system was used all throughout Asia in Korea, Japan and Vietnam. - But through colonialism, new language systems took place. - Chinese conquests in Huang dynasty, the Chinese language system was put in place - Most exported form was the Chinese writing system, as the way to write until the early th 20 century - Some ancient characters still exist today, but may have different meanings and a little bit alerted The Chinese Writing System - Writing: convention of visual signs ▫ example: $, something that is easily recognized and has meaning, agreed on by everyone ▫ Visual AND conventional understanding - visual approximation of speech, visual representation of spoken language - Writing systems of the world ▫ Phonetic → alphabetic  English:  26 letters of the alphabet  complex rules  ghoti/ enough/ ghost → syllabic  Japanese writing system  each sign symbolises a k sound with a vowel  alphabetic system  analytical to phonic tic sound ▫ ideographic → no indication on how the word/ symbol sounds  example: home – used to be a roof over a pig  subsistence farmer came home, where they kept their pig sty in the home  can be pronounced any such way across Asia and still has the same meaning/ similar symbol  signs are used to represent an idea  Chinese writing system served as a unifying tool across asia → Chinese Characters  pictures – pictograms  MOUNTAINS  conventions  symbols has roots in Confucius values, and reflects subsistence farming life o PEACE – female figure under a roof, during the time, to have a peace to is to keep wife and daughter home from work and school → eventually, Chinese writing and language system came to a an ideographic = [phonetic sign (“phonograms”)  chicken: use a sign that represents the chicken, followed by the sign that sounds like a chicken → disyllabic, polysyllabic words  train: a vehicle, with fire/ xe lua Evolution of Chinese Writing System - Shang Dynasty ->states: free development - Qin Empire: orthography → only one way of writing to prevent anyone from writing propaganda against him → Dynasty did not last long, only lasted 15 years, they were too ambitious - Han: systematization → fixing of shapes → indentifying radicals → continuous grown along established new lines → new characters → eg. uranium , elevator TUTORIAL - MOVIE - forced to be resourceful because of the lack of resources - every part of animal used - fuel used sparsely - with large population, farmers in rural - peasant October 2, 2013 – Lecture #4 Classical China - Western Zhou (came before the Eastern Period) 1122-771 BCE - Dynasty – family that governs → King W
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