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HIST 3131 (18)
Ben Kelly (18)
Lecture 4

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HIST 3131
Ben Kelly

Lecture 4 October-01-12 6:16 PM The Second Punic War  Hannibal raided through modern day Spain, France and into Italy  Did Hannibal lose the war due to a series of miscalculations?  What does the Roman victory tell us about the secret to Roman Success?  Hannibal sets out in 21 BCE through Spain, North through France  Crossed the alps south of Gaul into Italy  Lost many elephants and men in the process 4 Main Phases 1. Great Battles 218-216 BCE a. Battle of Trebia 218 BCE  An "inconclusive draw" but Romans lost  Bad luck, December in Northern Italy, bad weather played in Roman loss  Hannibal stationed surprise attack on Romans b. Battle of Lake Trasimene June 217 BCE  Spring Hannibal march south into Etruria  Passed Roman army, but the army followed them  Hannibal's army ambushed them from above in the early morning  Massacre, not a battle c. Battle of Cannae 216 BCE  Last of the great battles  Roman forces made contact with Hannibal in Southeast Italy  Defeated Romans, encircled them  Massacre fell upon the Romans 2. The War of Attrition 216-203 BCE o Romans avoid set-piece battles, and stick to higher ground o Hannibal tries to isolate the Romans from allies in Italy o Success in convincing a few allied communities to change allegiances o By 203 BCE Hannibal's position was untenable, withdraws to North Africa o Often taking over of allied citied occurred by stealth overnight o Carthaginian authority instructed to fall back to North Africa 3. War in Sicily and Spain o Spain - initial Roman victories 218-215 BCE under Scipio as leader o Spain - Scipio Africanus made Roman commander after father and uncle, inflicted series of victories on Carthage ca. 209-206 BCE o Sicily - Syracuse defeated to the Carthaginians was retaken by siege in 211 BCE 4. War in North Africa o Scipio 205 - Invades North Africa o Besieges Utica o Brief peace negotiated 203-202 BCE o Scipio defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Sama Hannibal Barca  Did Hannibal miscalculate?  Mistake crossing the alps  Limited naval power  He should have launched a naval attack  Lost 16% of army, 25% cavalry before me
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