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Lecture 3

HIST 3180 Lecture 3: week 3
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6 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 3180
Professor
Thabit Abdullah

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Class 3 25, September,2017
THE Parthians
- The parni
- Rule
- Society
- Religion
- Rome
- Small Kingdom
The first Persian empire, Achaemenian empire, became the standard, till the Islamic period.
Achaemenian were topple in 343 BC by alexander.
Alexander lead a huge army across the bospherous at 22 years old, he has 43,000 infantry, 5500
Calvary.
He went on a campaign for 11 years. (alexander)
He died at 33 in babolan.
He brought philosophy and people like Aristotle.
Alexander work refer to as Hellenization. (spread of Greek idea and land to others).
Alexander main victory is at 331 BC at Gaugamela. (3rd battle between alexander and Archimedean
army). (darius III last shah of Archimedean).
Once he conquered, all he asked was loyalty and taxes. Most governors were still Persian.
Established many Greek settlement.
Many Greek gods came to the Persian territories.
Alexander like the God “Herakles
Gods join: Appolo and Mithra.
323 B.C Alexander died.
After his Death, alexander empire splited
Seluces got the Iran, Iraq section of the empire, and created the Seleucid empire.
Seleucid dynasty builded a new capital called Selucia.
only Rome and Alexandria were bigger than Selucia.
Seleucid dynasty, De-centralization was the norm.
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The Parthians
The north-eastern part of Archimedean dynasty of called Parthians or Khurasan.
The central Asian countries would harrarast the Achemedian Empire.
The Parni people were the first people settled in the Khurasan.
They were nomads and depended on their horses.
They were great on horses and archers.
The parnis were the first to have their military tactics described by the romans.
the Pathias shot- important military tactic. (Battle of Carrhae 53 BC)
280 BC- Parthians were unified under a ruler called Arsaces.
250 BC. INVADE Iran and make the Parthian empire.
129 BC were in control of all the land right up to Tigris river.
Mithradates I was the great Parthian king, he captured the Seleucid king.
Established a new neighbourhood in Seleucia. Together the neighbourhood became known as
CTESIPHON.
WHEN the Parthian came to power, they took the name Shahan shah, king of kings.
130 B.C, Rome emergence as a republic.
Rule
- Maintained the De-centralized under Seleucids.
- Never care of political ideologies.
- Ancient kingship, tribal and Greek method of rule (e.g. Senate).
- Nature of their rule was highly de-centralized. (lords were very strong)
- Several provinces, took the name of king or shah.
- Charax, Adiabane (Iraq Kurdistan) were strong provinces during the Parthian period.
- Borders of the empire, the Euphrates was their western to the Oxus river in the east.
- Parthian rule Greek was phased out, Aramaic became the main language, and the scrip was
much clearer.
- Parthians never used professional armies, they used tribal and mercenaries
Society
Cast systems
3 classes
1. Warriors.
2. Priest (customs shamanism)
3. Commoners
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Description
Class 3 25, September,2017 THE Parthians The parni Rule Society Religion Rome Small Kingdom The first Persian empire, Achaemenian empire, became the standard, till the Islamic period. Achaemenian were topple in 343 BC by alexander. Alexander lead a huge army across the bospherous at 22 years old, he has 43,000 infantry, 5500 Calvary. He went on a campaign for 11 years. (alexander) He died at 33 in babolan. He brought philosophy and people like Aristotle. Alexander work refer to as Hellenization. (spread of Greek idea and land to others). Alexander main victory is at 331 BC at Gaugamela. (3 battle between alexander and Archimedean army). (darius III last shah of Archimedean). Once he conquered, all he asked was loyalty and taxes. Most governors were still Persian. Established many Greek settlement. Many Greek gods came to the Persian territories. Alexander like the God Herakles Gods join: Appolo and Mithra. 323 B.C Alexander died. After his Death, alexander empire splited Seluces got the Iran, Iraq section of the empire, and created the Seleucid empire. Seleucid dynasty builded a new capital called Selucia. only Rome and Alexandria were bigger than Selucia. Seleucid dynasty, Decentralization was the norm.
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