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Lecture 19

HIST 3180 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Sasanian Empire, Hatra, Shapur IiPremium

4 pages18 viewsFall 2017

Course Code
HIST 3180
Thabit Abdullah

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Week 19 26th Feb. 2018
Relations with the Arabs
-early principalities
Earliest Arabs, were 1000 years before Sassanid. First reference to Arabs were the Assyrian,
700-800 BC.
They had a complicated relationship with their more sophisticated northern neighbours.
Most of the Arab peninsula were covered in deserts.
The deserts go all the way to the Syrian land.
There was a tense relationship.
There was trade.
The Arabs after several centuries, began to perfect the animal, and they had to keep moving.
When they keep moving they had to be nomad life’s
This leads to 2 things
1. community had to be small (around 200 people)
2. sense of kingship solidarity (you belong to a single tribe; hence it was very strong to
belong to a tribe, the only reason they survived, was due to the strong attachment to
tribes, sense of honour) they were considered by their neighbour as mercenaries for
being a strong warrior.
With more time, there were more interaction, with more trade, lead to wealth, which
created early Arab principalities.
Places where principalities occurred were in the north, Palmyra, hatra, Petra and in
During 2nd CENTURY BCE, there were towns established by the Nabateans
(mixture of people but most likely Arabs)
HATRA managed to avoid being captured, until Shapur I who captured the city.
The Princess of hatra was called al-Nadira.
During the reign of Shapur II, he receives an embassy from Yemen, to help them
against Ethiopian and Byzantium attack.
-Al- Hira
It was the most Arab city, it was founded during the reign of Ardeshir.
There was an Arab tribe called Banu Tannukh, where a tribe that reached the Sassanid
There was an agreement with Ardeshir, that they would be there, and be allies to the Sassanid
Banu Lakhm was the head of the tribe.
Once Al-Hira was established, the head of the tribe negotiate with Ardeshir that if Sassanid
provided for them, they would become their Allies.
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