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HIST 3581 (3)

Lecture 1

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York University
HIST 3581
Franc Sturino

Lecture 1- The Founding of Canada  Native peoples are also immigrants in the sense that their existence is a result of a migration via the Bering Strait  Native population divided into three groups: Pacific, Inland or Plains Indians, and the West Coast o The most developed (ex: political system, laws, economic relations) were the settled communities on the East Coast  Fishing economy o Inland were more nomadic and their level of cultural and economic development was lower  Their food staple was the buffalo  The Europeans came into contact with Eastern Canada o Two basic Native civilizations: Algonquin and Iroquoian  The Algonquin peoples had sub-cultures that were brought together with a similar language, economy, nomadic (ex: migrate after game), patriarchal society, etc.  The Iroquoian people are divided into two major alliances: Iroquois Alliance and the Huron Alliance brought together with established, permanent towns and have advanced agriculture and do not have to hunt  French encounter them south of the St. Lawrence River  The Iroquois Confederacy  The Huron Confederacy  The English had the Iroquois as allies and the French had the Huron as allies  Women had a much greater role in decision making than the other major cultural groups o They are asked for their advice o The elder women have considerable power in terms of consulting decisions  If there was a settlement, there had to be conquests and dispossession of land o The question of population is very important – how many were there? o The old estimates throughout North America was 2 million o More recently, the estimates are that there were 20 million in North America  The first meaningful contact took place in 1492 o The first permanent contact with North America was when Columbus laid claim to the Caribbean and from there, the Spanish moved across to conquer Mexico o A lot of Native tribes were completely extinguished  A large part was because of diseases brought from Europe that Natives had no antibodies to and died in huge numbers o For Canada, the first contact was made with John Cabot who worked for the English and was the first European to make the northern part of America known  He lays the first claim for England in Canada and it made the English aware of the potential in the northern part of the continent o The French also sent over their explorers and one of the early pioneers was Rosendeau  The explorers were all Italian and the reason for that was the two naval powers in Italy with a long tradition of naval sciences  The first permanent settlement in Canada was in 1608 with the establishment of Quebec City by Samuel de Champlain o It was only a couple hundred people o Before this, the French had tried to settle in Nova Scotia and Quebec and failed o One reason that Quebec was seen as a good place for settlement was because it was at the point that the St. Lawrence begins to flow outward into the Atlantic o They failed because the French did not know how to survive in the New World (ex: winters, scurvy, transportation in the snow) o The only way the French and British survived was by relying on the Native peoples to help them get through the critical first years of settlement o It is established as a fur trading post  It was a place to trade and export o The second major settlement was in 1642 with the founding on Montreal  The person who led the colony was Mazaneuf
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