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HIST 3760- The Constitutional Movement

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York University
HIST 3760
Joshua Fogel

1thMonday January 30 2012HIST 3760ATHE CONSTITUTIONAL MOVEMENTIntroductionThe Mandate of Heaven ideathe ruleris responsible for dispensing that rule but not for accounting for the peopleUnder a modern constitutional system in general sense the ruler and the government are accountable for the people There are institutional tools for the people to use to hold parliament accountableNakamura Masanao was famous for translating a book called Self Help even though they are not popular anymore However they were hugely popular during the period He also translated John Stuart Mills very famous book called On LibertyKato Hiroyukis famous for translating General Aims of True GovernmentTranslating was a difficult task because the terms used in these bookseg government societyhad not yet existed in Japan In a way these translators had to coin new terms in Japanese when translating the booksMany of these translators and scholars had been to the West on diplomatic trips sent by the bakufuKato and Nakamura were government bureaucrats for a period of time and served as government thinktanks for Meiji time about the civilization of Japan into the way of the WestAll of these men wanted to revamp their government institutions Nakamura Masanao Fukuzawa Yukichi Nakae Chomin Ueki Emori and Kato HiroyukioThese men all wanted reforms in the realms of culture and spirit had to learn the spirit of the civilized WestoThey did not invent many of modern day products but they learned the way the products were produced and they are the reformersoNot copying the West on how they make it but rather inventing new waysEven in the late Tokugawa period Japanese perceived a spiritual core in civilization and they thought that it was this spirit that made the West strongBy the Meiji time most Japanese realized that spirits such as liberty freedom etc would make the government strong and powerfuloOnly under these spirits can individuals fight for their
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