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HIST 3770 (1)

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York University
HIST 3770
Joan Judge

September 19, 2013 First Clash With the West Early 19 , Century - Rapid rise in population added pressure on the economy  Unequal distribution of wealth - Qing Dynsaty (1644-1911)  Northern Manchu people, ethnically not Chinese - Opium Problem – Central to China’s Encounter with the West  Britain was selling opium to the people of China (Opium was cultivated in India  large amounts of silver were flowing out of China  Qings wanted to ban the frug, thus, British responded militarily  leads to 1842 Treaty & 100 years of Humiliation for China  China was taken advantage of by western powers through several treaties that followed the one with Britain  100 years of Humiliation ends with the rise of Communism Destabilizing the Regime - Rebellions/ civil wars, war with Britain - To combat against the British, the Chinese used western technology and policies in attempt to strengthen themselves - This threatened Chine’s philosophical beliefs and text > Confucianism > structures social life - A more practical way of thinking, development o schools to speak foreign languages, establishing foreign ministry - Qing dynasty attempts to make final reforms in education, with the military, railway, constitutional government – too little too late! st 1 Clash With the West - 19 C.: Shift in Confucianism (a way of life, practice, poetry, philosophical thinking, etc,) kaozheng (Evidential research) to statecraft - Trying to find truth to help with current affairs and problems in old philosophical texts. - statecraft : scholars started moving towards a more practical manner. Hong Liang - inspector of education - direct understanding of the local people and their hardships - commented on the excessive spending it the cities - wrote an essay, a plea for the government to move and work in a more practical way - criticized Emperor Qianlong, and was sentenced to death - Qianlong died in 1879, next emperor extradited Liang, who died in 1809 Long Zizong - it grew increasingly harder to reign over China, Zizong turned to ancient texts to back up/ support his call for chance (this became an important strategy for the next 100 years – avoiding any trouble) - He said that the Golden Age is in the past, and that history moves forwards, this the people and government should start to move forwards too. - he wrote about economic equalities will lead to rebellions Li Ruzhen - wrote about sex discrimination, foot binding - book : “Flowers in the Mirror” Ch. “Country of Women” (satire) Shen Fu - Wrote “Six Records from a Floating Life” a memoir on his hardships and love in his life - found little employment, despite being educated - wrote about his loving and intimate relationship with his wife Gong Zizzhen - Used Confucian Classic, “Spring & Autumn Annals” -> history is going forwards  writing satires: examples of dissatisfaction  complex interactions within and outside of China Daoguong Emperor 1821-1850 - Treaty signed - opium: poorest people traded in copper, when paying taxes, they paid in silver, but the value of silver was going up, then they have to pay more copper to buy silver - tried to ban opium → 1834: important shit (East Indian Company) was a private company, but British government took over, thus company as newly backed up by Parliament and troops Lin Zexu - appointed by the emperor to implement the banning of opium - began at the top with officials who smoked it, talked to students who worked/ supervised under addict - confiscated 3500 pounds - attempts to please with British to stop opium trade, wrote a letter to Queen Victoria who did not think much of it - Attempted to blockade foreigners who finally agreed to hand over chests - destroyed 3 million pounds of raw opium, mixed with salt and lime to dissolve, and prevent anyone from extracting the opium - out of respect, said a prayer to the sea - British saw Zexu as a threat, and this was a build-up to war - navies were mobilised - Palmerstor – sympatric to merchants who lost money commanded parliament to send 16 warships, and 14 steamships to China - Zexu continues to expel opium merchants - 1840 – fleet arrives at the coast of Canton, meets an official who as less lenient, Qishan, wanted British gains - Promised premier will ay &6 million as compensation to merchants, he is then executed - Canton to Nanying – conflict ends August 8, 42 and end of Opium war September 26, 2013 – Lecture # 3 Chapter 8 – The Opium Problem Key points: - Opium is many things, performing many complex, source of revenue for regimes and poor peasants - it was something of used for different levels of the Chinese economy - Britain was seen as a villain - Japan was also a villain because they used opium to subdue the Chinese, sell them to the Chinese as well, they operated as an imperialist power - Opium is more than a moral failure th - problem intensified in the 19 century - number of opium used multiplied by six - not just an economic commodity, it was also a commodity that has deeper implications on human health – ADDICTION - Opium regimes : attempts to create mechanism to regulate the way opium is used and sold - the purpose of regime is to create policies 1. league of nations, propose to the united nations, now opium is used internationally 2. East India company – bringing opium to China , making profit 3. they acted in political spheres - these regimes highlight how complex opium was as one tried to regulate it - opium really refaced east Asia, how these regimes came in conflict with each other - major commodity that linked trade between Asia and British - there were efforts to bribing in control - these efforts had very little impacts - not till 1920 and 1930s Japanese come in involved - from 1600, there was opium in china, initially used in different ways - it was medicine for diarrhea - counteracted male impedance - 1729, emperor already that this was a potentially problem and wanted to ban - his effort to ban had little impact - over the course of the 18 century, there was an large amount of opium circulating already - 1813 – east India company lost its monopoly in India - 1838 – Ling: became an actor in stopping the flow of opium, 30 000 chests of opium circulation - 1856 – Britain doesn’t want it in their borders, but want it in their international economy - still widely circulating in china, where the use of opium changed over time - users were used more in the south by wealthy men recreationally (south is where the ports are, point of entry) - the poor used it more as medicinally purposes - 1879, opening of more ports after the port, (Shanghai) became increasingly saturated with opium, from the south to other parts of the country th - late 19 century, the origin of opium is locally grown rather than imported - over the course of 19 century, it was usually used for homosocial recreation (smoked with the same sex) - circulated in the courtesan life - there were smaller smoke shops with different cliental – opium dens, laid down, sedated - economic opportunity, grown in poor parts of the country where it did grow to expand their money supply and became part of internal trade networks - as this is developing, officials are alarmed with he effects of opium on the population - Li Hongzhang wrote a letter to queen Victoria, similar to Ling (other guy) and said that china was viewing this as a moral issue and wanted the trade to stop, but china only viewed it as a physically issue - Hongzhang was also concerned with the economy as well – the flow of silver outside of china - 1906 – kind of a turning point, ruling government (Qing) tried to eradicate opium - banning production and cultivation within china - decree has very little impact but it show the will of the dynasty - only way British would diminish their role is only if the Chinese would stop native production - British themselves started seeing the negative effects of opium - diminishing productivity of the Chinese people, unstable revenue - by the time Qing government tried to react, only 5/6 of opium is produced in the country itself, less and less of an imperialist problem as we get into the 20 th century - in response to the awareness of the opium effects in china to the international community, there are regimes that comes in to regulate - 1909 – US comes in and calls for commission of use and sell of opium - 1914, US drafts its on legislation to be used in own country, Harrison Act - other countries follows suit and addresses dangerous drugs - Britain does the same in 1920 - after WW1, the league of nations has advisory commission that focuses on opium, and dedicates to control the national traded of the drug - with more and more international country, merchants and producers produces boiled down forms of opium - more processed, it becomes morphine and heroin, more dangerous - one legal consequence of the efforts to control difficult to detect substances, is to criminalize opium trade in specific countries - local organisation comes together, work with the government to be vigilant and criminalize in their spheres - efforts to create detoxification centres - corrupt officials, involved in opium trade (Mafia like), funds some aspects of the governments and gangs/ bosses - those against opium – nationalists, moral values, promote health - Japan – first encountered opium as a issue in its sphere of influence in Taiwan - 1895 – realized opium needs to be controlled, saw addiction as negative impact on colonial subjects - was aware that opium was a way to make money for themselves th - before end of 19 century, they began smuggling opium into China - similar to the case of Britain, initially was it cooperation and businesses smuggling opium in, but Japanese government will soon be involved and be one of the main pushers of opium into china - Japan has signed the treaties saying opium is bad with the league of nations - Japan violated these treaties themselves - they use opium and money they made to fund their own aggression in china, kept up until the 1930s - use it as a way to finance own puppet regimes in china and in other countries in the co prosperity sphere - very present in Manchuria - most aggressive in selling opium - 1/6 of revenue in Manchuria for the Japanese came from opium - part of the first stage of Japan in china - may 1933, there was a truce but at this point the Japanese used more underground ways to get opium into china - at this point they were smuggling in opium from Iran - 1938, Japanese expansion even more important in there CPS, Japanese began to manufacture and export opium - opium is part of the 100 years of humiliation - opium was more than just a source of revenue and a danger to one’s health, it was an normal leisure activity - shanghai was business centre of china and leisure centre - a city of amazing attractions and dangers - fuelled economic activity - foreign present most concentrated - cities like shanghai has areas just for the foreigners - upper class opium use went one - opium available in tea houses - flower smoke houses: brothels – sex and opium - 10 million users of opium, 10 million workers to produce it – false logic but it was not seen as a bad thing at the time - opium was a means of escape, dispels depression - some poor addicts chose opium over food - smoking opium was not improve one’ status, but to lessen it th - more written at turn of 20 century, that opium leads to a downward spiral of life - it is not a concrete thing, it opens to any other different issues - national strength - upward/ downward mobility - a symbol in ways representing people and country October 3 , 2013 – Lecture #4 The Crisis Within - Spiritual Vacuum: The Breakdown of Confucianism → Christian and Muslim rebellion o directed issues that weren’t directed by Confucianism o scholars who firmly believe in Confucianism re-established order o local elite are now → local elites are now able to reign in control, Qing dynasty’s power weakening o pro government/ anti government / anti foreign / challenge imperial rule ­ Problems of the Time - Patriarchal society → infanticide of female children → the gender ratio gap is huge → with significantly less women, there would be poor restless men would be desperate → renting/ sharing wives → these men joined the rebellion, they no domestic ability - Demoralization in Bureaucracy → sense that Confucianism not as strong as it once was → elites had trouble getting employment → discontent, → negative view on China → a lot of corruption, opting out of the official system and do what is best for them Lin Qing - Early rebellion with common elements in the near upcoming future - young man from a lower-class family, son of a clerk and Beijing - resented his social status - no loyalty to Confucius principles - restless young man, always gambling - finally found a religious group - Millenarian Buddhists - called himself the future Buddha, and very anti government - planned to kill the emperor - was executed himself, with his head on display - had a significant following - operated mostly in the north The Triads - Mostly operated in the south - welcomed women into their ranks - critical of the government, who they believed could not resist the foreigners - the group had a variety of people part of Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864) / the Taiping Rebellion - Hakka → from the south of China, considered “guests” in China → considered “guests” → women did not bind their feet - he was a failed academic → in 3 attempt, someone gave him a religion Christian track → he forgot about it → after failing and failing again, - he had a dream of God and Jesus → He believed that he was God’s second son with a particular destiny → preaches and baptizes, destroying Confucius shrines and altars → did a bit of Bible study, but very little handle on Christianity → 1849 – 10 000 followers → 1850 – 20 000 → believed in a greater role for women, advocated for separate examination system for women → January 1851 – declares himself king - March 1852 – arrives in Nanjing → takeover was horrific massacre of Manchus → he took residence in the Ming’s imperial palace → runs his heavenly kingdom for 11 years 1853-1864 → attempted to establish strict society o no drinking/ dancing o no prostitution/ no opium o outs his own examination, based on the Bible and not Confucianism o tries to implement a socialist regime o everyone allotted a piece of land according to size of family, and food is shared with the entire community o a big emphasis on equality in terms of gender and economy - failure → bad leadership → he was hypocritical → residence of Nanjing did not like him and his people → could not extend his influence → did not ally with foreigners → British had their economic interests, no opium, no support from the west → failure to appeal to sentiments → did not coordinate with other rebellions - after his death, his followers killed themselves rather giving into the enemy Zeng Guofan - faithful to Qing government and Confucianism - mobilized his own army to aid Qing government → Xiang Army – poor men in his home - 1854, Chinese forced to re-sign treaties with foreigners - making unreasonable demands - wanted a residence in Being for an ambassador Arrow War (1856-1860) - 1858: Treaty of Tianjin, but hostilities not over yet - got the British ambassador - more treaty ports - British respond to Qing not complying to some articles, under the order of negotiator of the British, troops went to Yuan Ming Yuan o Summer palace for the imperial family, Jesuits has helped build the area o burnt and looted the area o senseless destruction to show how they disgruntled they were with the Qing saying no to them o this act brought results o Prince Gong negotiates with the British, convention of Peking is signed o emperor is forced to express regret and pay another 8 million tails, losing more territory Nian Rebellion - originates in the North - no religious/ political affiliation Muslim Rebellion - Zuo Zongtang brought down the Muslim rebellion October24, 2013 – Lecture #7 Restoration Through Reform Emperor Tonghzi Empress Dowager Cixi (Real important power holder) Prince Gong – openness to the west - One main reason why the Qing stayed together about the rebellion was the strong provincial rulers → Zeng Guofan o Reconstruction of Nanjing → Li Hongzheng → Zuo Zongtang - restore political order, restore economy, and erect institutions - most leaders were military men, sources of power and authority → able to mobilize local militia → create their own private army - first and foremost, wanted to restore Confucian principle Zeng Guofan 1811-72 - Born 1811, came from a modest family - at the beginning of his career, he got the Jingshi degree, the highest degree one could get at 23 - accepted into the highest academy in the capital - expert on rituals - lived the life of a true Confucian - made sure all his family got an education, did not become wealthy until later into his career - 3 core beliefs: → moral principles acquired through education → close study of texts (Kaozheng) – evidential learning → practical learning - an ethical man, kept a daily diary of self reflection - made lists of those who died - made arches of chaste women - celebrated loyalty - restored order to agriculture - opened to western technology, saw it as a way to reinforce Confucianism Fen Guifen (1809-1874) - holder of Jinshi - served in the Hamlet academy - active at the time of Taiping Rebellion in Suzhou - wrote an essay that talked about China’s need to strengthen itself by adopting foreign ideas - Chinese needs to advance their understanding of math and science and languages - the reason why the west was stronger was because: → they used all man power (not everyone in china was contributing to the country effectively, like the women) → more effective in terms of agriculture, using their resources more effectively → there was a closer relationship between ruler and ruled → in the west, there was a better relationship between words and deeds (Confucian principle) - What Feng was doing was projecting what he thought what should be the ideal case in China - emphasises on technological development in China (ships, weapons) to be built in city ports for these developments → treaty ports along coasts → placed with a population of merchants, elites, foreigners - very instrumental notation of using western technology, but will not give up completely on their own traditions - sees themselves are more powerful than the west eventually Yung Qin (Rong Hong, 1828-1912) - sent abroad to learn about western technology and purchase equipment to bring back to China - educated by missionaries - graduated from Yale in 1854 - Feng was behind the mission Zuo Zongtang (1812-85) - a number of institutions starting rising - customs house was set up to deal with imports that comes into the country and to charge tariffs - Foreign Affairs, Zongli Yamen (est. 1861) - these insittutions symbolic of China’s understanding of relations with the west - it was not a common thing for China to form new government institutions → an old building was used, gave the impression of a temporary stage Prince Gong (Yixin, 1833-98) - only 28 years old at the time of the founding of the Yamen - respected the westerners and admit that they had to learn from the foreigners - worked closely with Wenxiang - together they tried to promote respect for the west - opened an interpreter school in Beijing, English and French - other schools were opened, following after - 1867, these schools were turned into more serious institutions – law, math, mechanic, geology, etc → math is the biases of a lot of different subjects → engineering issues Robert Hart - Qing Imperial Maritime Customs - tries to regulates imports, tariffs - staffed by international staff - runned by foreigners for the benefits of China - made certain that he was bringing in a lot of revenue to the Qing government - saw to it that some profits goes to some of Gong’s projects - helped complied stats on trade  late 1860s showed a positive relationship between China and the west BUT THERE WAS VIOLENCE Missionaries - cases where missionaries who were trying to do what they believed was right was beaten, harassed and killed - the worst massacre in the city of Tianjin → the Catholics had built a church on a site that was an imperial park and temple → the Chinese were angered and offended because this land was for ancestor worship → there was protest on the part of the Chinese → one French individual was frustrated and went to the local magistrate with a gun and killed a bystander → they enraged the local Chinese → as a result, the locals went on a more violent rampage and killed 16 French who were associated with the church → the church was also burned down → the Qing government had to react, 16 Chinese were convicted (an eye for an eye), had to pay retributions - argued that was the educated Chinese that were the source of unrest - the educated had a better sense of things if China was to be carved up, felt threatened - missionaries were not a negative force → there was a diverse number of missionaries with a diverse number of agendas → they brought some positive processes → opened up schools for those who would not have otherwise gotten the chance → poor families had room and board and education provided by the missionaries → 1844, first school for girls → trained a lot of doctors → the two orphan girls who became doctors and came back to China to open up modern hospital → spear headed the abolishment of foot binding practices Immigration - south east Asia and north America - most from the south - settles in different countries → United States o gold diggers o building of the railway o ambiguous reaction to the Chinese in the North America  didn’t have their families with them  didn’t contribute to the economy  mysterious “other”  racism  Chinatowns  “feared” November 7, 2013 – Lecture #9 New Tensions in the Late Qing - Prince Tongzhi died at the age of 18, leaving things at a terrible position → His wife was pregnant, that child would be best candidate for emperorship under regency - But Empress Cixi places her nephew, Guangxu in power → Tongzhi’s wife died after, rumours states Empress Cixi pushed her to do so → Cixi violated the rule of succession, successor has to be from the next generation (someone has to be in the right position to perform the ancestor rites)  Cixi born 1845 came from relatively high Manchu lineage → Consort to Emperor Xianfeng → 1856, his favourite consort who bore him a son → he trusted her with political information → named co-regent after the death of her emperor  most important impact, 1898 and 1908 → forced Guangxu in house arrest so he could not have any say Problems/ Weaknesses - She was very conservative - very extravagant - did not have the best judgment - ignorance to foreign policy issues Conflicts → Prince Gong - established Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1861) - executed one of Cixi’s favourite eunuchs ▫ eunuch play important roles in bringing down prior emperors ▫ casterated males who took care of household duties ▫ allowed in the inner court, they could be threat Key Figures - Deaths of Zeng Guofan , Zuo Zongtang - they were key mediators between everyone and the empress - only one key important men left, Li Hongzheng → men of the north, who had a good relationship with Cixi → served as Govenor General → Commissioner of trade - endeavours in entrepreneurial, educational, and diplomatic affairs  Entrepreneurial → reorientation in Chinese values, away from Confucian values, more appreciation for merchants and what they have to offer → The China Merchants Team Navigation Company → helped to bring in revenue through import duties → revenue to support the government  Education → Send Chinese students abroad to get training → Yung Wing who studied at Yale, who brought back machinery
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