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HIST 3850
Patrick J Connor

MURDER AND OTHER CRIMES IN THE 20TH CENTURY LECTURE 2: SEPTEMBER 14TH, 2012 TOPIC: WHAT IS MURDER? UNDERSTANDING THE LAW; COURTS ANDAPPEALS IN THE U.S.AND CANADA ➔ The Justice System in the USAand Canada ➔ North America in 1700 (settlements). The original 13 colonies were settled by a variety of religious groups. ➔ Religious dissidence → lead persecution ➔ Massachusetts became the home of the Puritans ➔ Pennsylvania → colony of flankers ➔ Because of the different foundations, social make-up and economies they depended on different aspects such as how Virginia depended on Tobacco, others on shipping. ➔ Virginia → fines for crimes were defined in pounds for Tobacco ➔ Pennsylvania would rely on wheat and livestock ➔ Carolina → rice crops ➔ Each colonies labor force differed. EnslavedAfricans were brought to Virginia to work the lands and then others began to follow. Most slaves ended up in the Caribbean later on ➔ 12 million slaves deported into the New World ➔ Slaves in the mainland American colonies reproduced themselves which did not take place on the Caribbean Islands due to the climate and labor for it would lead to a high mortality rate ➔ 1750's after the century slavery ofAmerica, slave population became 30-40% of the population. ➔ American Population, c. 1760 → Virginia/Maryland: 312, 000 (white); 189, 000 (black), N. & S. Carolina, Georgia: 119, 000 (white); 94, 000 (black), South Carolina: 36, 000 (white); 57, 000 (back). ➔ Labor depended on factors such as climate (too hot), and the help of convicts ➔ These were the original 13 colonies that rebelled against British Rule. ➔ In Canada our climate and land was not very good for growing crops thus slavery made no sense. ➔ 200 years ago there wereAfrican born men and women who were slaves here in Canada. ➔ What links these colonies together? Language, similar geography, opposition to arbitrary British rule (distrust of powerful governments). As a result... when they came together to rebel against British rule and then again against the constitution → common factor is their political fairs, maintained control of judiciary and criminal law. Individual states maintaining control over their own affairs without the central government interfering → very important. ➔ Used State Criminal Justice System to deal with these states. Government said : we respect your independence of the criminal affairs occurring but we need to take over because this is so out of line ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ➔ Political System of the United States:A) House of Representatives, B) Senate, C) Executive, D) Veto, E) States, F) Criminal Codes. we are all individual states who have different interests and issues but who needs a government who allows them to explore these interests individually while still establishing an understanding amongst each state. ➔ House of Representatives and Senate together are called a Congress ➔ Executive → president and its cabinet (not member of House or Senate like in Canada). ➔ President has a Veto which allows him to override any legislation. Congress can try and pass the veto but they need the majority vote to do so. These are the elected officials → important. ➔ 50 different states in the USAand each has their own criminal code and procedure. In Canada murder for example is defined one way across Canada. ➔ Criminal Court Process → arrest → by police, by country sheriff, by state police (different levels of police), appearance, Grand Jury, arraignment Felonies → most serious crime. Misdemeanors → less serious crimes. ➔ Municipal police make up the majority in terms of levels of officers. ➔ 3000 country sheriff offices across the states. Most s
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