MURDER AND OTHER CRIMES IN THE 20TH CENTURY
LECTURE 2: SEPTEMBER 14TH, 2012
TOPIC: WHAT IS MURDER? UNDERSTANDING THE LAW; COURTS ANDAPPEALS IN THE
➔ The Justice System in the USAand Canada
➔ North America in 1700 (settlements). The original 13 colonies were settled by a variety of
➔ Religious dissidence → lead persecution
➔ Massachusetts became the home of the Puritans
➔ Pennsylvania → colony of flankers
➔ Because of the different foundations, social make-up and economies they depended on different
aspects such as how Virginia depended on Tobacco, others on shipping.
➔ Virginia → fines for crimes were defined in pounds for Tobacco
➔ Pennsylvania would rely on wheat and livestock
➔ Carolina → rice crops
➔ Each colonies labor force differed. EnslavedAfricans were brought to Virginia to work the
lands and then others began to follow. Most slaves ended up in the Caribbean later on
➔ 12 million slaves deported into the New World
➔ Slaves in the mainland American colonies reproduced themselves which did not take place
on the Caribbean Islands due to the climate and labor for it would lead to a high mortality
➔ 1750's after the century slavery ofAmerica, slave population became 30-40% of the population.
➔ American Population, c. 1760 → Virginia/Maryland: 312, 000 (white); 189, 000 (black), N. &
S. Carolina, Georgia: 119, 000 (white); 94, 000 (black), South Carolina: 36, 000 (white); 57,
➔ Labor depended on factors such as climate (too hot), and the help of convicts
➔ These were the original 13 colonies that rebelled against British Rule.
➔ In Canada our climate and land was not very good for growing crops thus slavery made no
➔ 200 years ago there wereAfrican born men and women who were slaves here in Canada.
➔ What links these colonies together? Language, similar geography, opposition to arbitrary
British rule (distrust of powerful governments). As a result... when they came together to rebel
against British rule and then again against the constitution → common factor is their political
fairs, maintained control of judiciary and criminal law. Individual states maintaining control
over their own affairs without the central government interfering → very important.
➔ Used State Criminal Justice System to deal with these states. Government said : we respect
your independence of the criminal affairs occurring but we need to take over because this
is so out of line
➔ Political System of the United States:A) House of Representatives, B) Senate, C) Executive,
D) Veto, E) States, F) Criminal Codes. we are all individual states who have different
interests and issues but who needs a government who allows them to explore these
interests individually while still establishing an understanding amongst each state.
➔ House of Representatives and Senate together are called a Congress
➔ Executive → president and its cabinet (not member of House or Senate like in Canada).
➔ President has a Veto which allows him to override any legislation. Congress can try and pass the veto but they need the majority vote to do so. These are the elected officials →
➔ 50 different states in the USAand each has their own criminal code and procedure. In
Canada murder for example is defined one way across Canada.
➔ Criminal Court Process → arrest → by police, by country sheriff, by state police (different
levels of police), appearance, Grand Jury, arraignment Felonies → most serious crime.
Misdemeanors → less serious crimes.
➔ Municipal police make up the majority in terms of levels of officers.
➔ 3000 country sheriff offices across the states. Most s