Week 13 – December 6, 2013
Domestic Terrorism/Political Murder in Canada
Canada has a history of terrorism such as the war of 1812 against America.
Monument to represent 1812 war in Niagara Falls was destroyed in 1940 by Americans called Brock Monument.
In the 1860’s there was an underground Irish society that promoted violence they were called the Fenian brotherhood.
They formed in New York City in 1858 and were dedicated to Irish independence.
They used violence to advance their cause and invaded Canada in 1866 with hopes of using Canada as hostage in negotiations with British
Irish wanted to negotiate with Britain and was very close to America and Canada was the closest way to get to British territory.
They crossed the boarder in Fort Erie Ontario called The Battle of Ridgeway June 2, 1866.
Politically Motivated Murders
Throughout Canada’s history we have only experienced 2 terrorism attacks
Thomas Darcy McGee 18251868
Leading journalist and public speaker
He caught up with movements in 1848 that supported rebellion of Irish against the English
He had a warrant for his arrest and moved to buffalo New york and joined another movement.
He found that in Canada the Irish were treated better then anywhere else and this changed his political views.
In the late 1850’s he shifted movements and members of the Fenian brotherhood called him a trader so he moved to Montreal in 1877.
He wrote about the concept the new nationality, which develops an alternative to the U.S which maintains a connection to Britain and Canada but still
gives Canada Soverigty.
In 1867 when John A Macdonald was appointed he made him in charge of environmental areas in charge of being a cabinet minister.
In 1868 he was killed by the Fenians.
The government suspended the habeus corpus act to be able to throw anyone they wanted in jail for as long as they wanted.
Anyone who expressed sympathy with fenian movement or was not against the death of McGee was a suspect to be put in jail
Patrick Whelan was the suspected murderer, assassin and was arrested and charged.
He was arrested because people informed he was the suspect, he was involved in politics and was involved with an election rival.
Crown: Whelan known political operative. Participated in Montreal radical scene. Hated mcgee and had even threatened him. He had stalked
McGee all the way to Ottawa.
Defence: Whelan a s political as anyone else and may have made inflammatory statements in the heat of an election campaign which is not
unusual behaviour or a desire to actually commit murder.
They brought his pistol as evidence, which matched the bullet in the death.
Crown: Whelan had a gun ad everyone had seen him with it. Same type as used in murder and he fired a single shot then replaced the spent
Defence: spent bullet accounted for when cleaning girl accidentally fired it. Besides, what sort of murderer would walk around two days later with
the murder weapon still in his pocket?
Crown: Whelan identified as a known fenian terrorist and had been heard plotting this specific murder in montreal over Christmas.
Defence: detective who swore this likely perjured himself in hopes of an award other witnesses certainly destroyed his credibility.
They found him guilty of murder and he was hanged. He claimed to be not guilty until the end and refused to give information on a potential killer.
There were no more assassinations in Canada after this and ended Fenian agitation.
Murder of Quebec Cabinet Minister called the October Crisis or FLQ of Pierre Laporte
History French Canadians in Quebec wanted to have their instilled culture but there was an overpower of English speaking Canada. They were a French culture but
most of their businesses were conducted by English speaking Americans
The rapid moderniz