What is a Job?
Job: A group of related activities and duties.
Position: The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee.
Job Family: A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics.
Job Specification : Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the person who is
to perform the job
Job Description: Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be performed
- The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining what the duties, tasks, or activities
of jobs are.
- HR managers use the data to develop job descriptions and job specifications that are the basis for
employee performance appraisal and development.
- The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity.
Performing Job Analysis
1. Select jobs to study
2. Determine information to collect: Tasks, responsibilities, skill requirements
3. Identify sources of data: Employees, supervisors/managers
4. Methods of data collection: Interviews, questionnaires, observation, diaries and records
5. Evaluate and verify data collection: Other employees, supervisors/managers
6. Write job analysis report
Controlling the Accuracy of Job Information
Factors influencing the accuracy of job information
- Self-reporting exaggerations and omissions by employees and managers.
- Collecting information from a representative sample of employees. - Capturing all important job information.
o Length of job cycle exceeding observation period.
o Lack of access to job site for personal observation.
o Lack of familiarity with the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job.
o Ongoing changes in the job.
National Occupational Classification
- The purpose is to compile, analyze and communicate information about occupations.
- The NOC is a composite of the Canadian labour force.
Approaches to Job Analysis
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): A questionnaire covering 194 different tasks that, by means of a
five-point scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a
Critical Analysis Method
- Job analysis method by which job tasks are identified that are critical for job success.
- The job analyst writes five to ten important task statements for each job under study.
- Job analysis method that relies on building job profiles that look at the job responsibilities and the
worker competencies necessary to accomplish them.
Task Inventory Analysis
- An organization-specific analysis developed by identifying—with the help of employees and
managers—a list of tasks and their descriptions that are components of different jobs.
HRIS and Job Analysis
- Human resource information systems (HRIS) and specialized software help automate job analysis.
- Analyze jobs and write job descriptions and job specifications based on those analyses.
- Combine job analysis with job evaluation and the pricing of organizational jobs.
Key Elements of a Job Description
Job Title -Indicates job duties and organizational level. Job Identification - Distinguishes job from all other jobs.
Essential Functions (Job Duties)- Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished.
Job Specifications - Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job.
- Provides status to the employee.
- Indicates what the duties of the job entail.
- Indicates the relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy
- Job Identification Section
- Departmental location of the job.
- Person to whom the jobholder reports.
- Date the job description was last revised.
- Payroll or code number.
- Number of employees performing the job.
- Number of employees in the department where the job is located.
- NOC code number.
- “Statement of the Job”.
Job Duties or Essential Functions, Section
- Statements in the job description of job duties and responsibilities that are critical for success on the
A job function is essential if:
- The position exists to perform the function.
- A limited number of employees are available to perform the function.
- The function is specialized, requiring needed expertise or abilities to complete the job.
Job Duties, or Essential Functions, Section
Statements of job duties that:
- Are arranged in order of importance that indicate the weight, or value, of each duty; weight of a
duty is gauged by the percentage of time devoted to it. - Stress the responsibilities that duties entail and the results to be accomplished.
- Indicate the tools and equipment used by the employee in performing the job.
Job Specifications Section
- Personal qualifications an individual must possess in order to perform the duties and
- The skills required to perform the job:
Education or experience, specialized training, personal traits or abilities, interpersonal skills or specific
behavioural attributes, and manual dexterities.
- The physical demands of the job:
Walking, standing, reaching, lifting, talking, and the condition and hazards of the physical work
Problems with Job Description
1. If poorly written, they provide little guidance to the jobholder.
2. They are not always updated as job duties or specifications change.
3. They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success.
4. They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reduc