Ch. 7 – Training and Development
The Scope of Training
- Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members.
- Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns
- Effort that is oriented more toward broadening an individual’s skills for the future
The Systems Approaching to Training and Development
1) Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment:
- Organization analysis: an examination of the environment, strategies and resources of the
organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed
- Task Analysis: the process of determining what the content of a training program should be on
the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job
- Person Analysis: A determination on the specific individuals who need training
2) Phase 2: Designing the Training Program
i. Represent the desired outcomes of a training program knowledge, attitudes, skills
Provide a basis for choosing methods and materials and for selecting the means of
assessing whether the instruction will be successful
Trainee Readiness and Motivation
ii. Strategies for creating a motivated training environment:
- Use positive reinforcement
- Eliminate threats and punishment
- Be flexible
- Have participants set personal goals
- Design interesting instructions
- Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning
iii. Principles of Learning
Focus on learning and transfer
- Goal setting – what’s the value?
- Meaningfulness of presentation
- Behavioural modelling
- Recognition of individual learning differences Focus on Methods and process
- Active practice and repetition
- Whole versus part learning
- Massed versus distributed learning
- Feedback and reinforcement – spot reward program and behaviour modification
iv. Characteristics of successful instructors
- Knowledge of the subject
- Sense of humour
- Clear instructions
- Individual assistance
Phase 3 – Implementing the Program
Choosing the instructional method
- Nature of training
- Type of trainees
- Organizational extent of training
- Importance of training outcomes
Training Methods for Non-Managerial Employees
- On-the-Job Training (OJT)
- Apprenticeship Training
- Cooperative Training, Internships, and Governmental Training
- Classroom Instruction
- Programmed Instruction
- Audiovisual Methods
- Computer-based Training and E-Learning
- Simulation Method
On-the-Job Training (OJT)
- Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their
supervisor or other trainer.
- The lack of a well-structured training environment.
- Poor training skills of managers.
- The absence of well-defined job performance criteria. Overcoming OJT Training Problems
- Develop realistic goals and/or measures for each OJT area.
- Plan a specific training schedule for each trainee, including set periods for evaluation and
- Help managers establish a nonthreatening atmosphere conducive to learning.
- Conduct periodic evaluations, after training is completed, to prevent regression.
- A system of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction
and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work.
- A training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal educational
- Are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the
opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in
- Enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of instructors.
- “Blended” learning—lectures and demonstrations are combined with films, DVDs, and
videotapes or computer instruction.
- Referred to as self-directed learning—involves the use of books, manuals, or computers to break
down subject matter content into highly organized, logical sequences that demand continuous
response on the part of the trainee
Audio Visual Method
- This method can be used to teach skills and procedures for many production jobs.
- It includes teleconferencing, video conferencing and webinar
- The simulation method emphasizes realism in equipment and its operation at minimum cost and
- Used when it is either impractical or unwise to train employees on the actual equipment used
on the job. E-Learning
- Learning that takes place via electronic media such web and computer-based training (CBT).
- Allows the firm to bring the training to employees.
- Allows employees to customize their own learning in their own time and space.
- Provides continuously updated
- Learning is self-paced.
- The training comes to the employee.
- The training is interactive.
- Employees do not have to wait for a scheduled training session.
- The training can focus on specific needs as revealed by built-in tests.