Occupational Health & Safety Management
HRM 3400 – Winter 2012 – Anna Blake
Lecture 6 – Managing Psychosocial Hazards – Feb 13
Readiness to Change Model
- Precontemplation – Employees at this stage are not intending to change their
behaviour (e.g. a person has no interest in quitting smoking). For practical
purposes, this is defined as not planning to change within the next six months.
- Contemplation – The employee has not begun to change their behaviour, but
intends to do so within the next six months (e.g. has talked about stopping
smoking with family physician).
- Preparation – The employee has not begun to change their behaviour, but
intends to do so in the next thirty days (e.g. has set a quit date).
- Action – The employee has changed their behaviour within the past thirty days
(e.g. has quit smoking).
- Maintenance – The employee has practiced this new behaviour for at least thirty
- Relapse occurs, of course, and so is sometimes considered a stage of behaviour
- After a change has been made, the employee may switch from maintenance to
relapse and on to action, continuing a cycle of maintenance of behaviour change.
Smoking cessation typically occurs following several attempts.
Critical Success Factors
- Management support
o Personal involvement and participation.
o Regular formal and informal statements of support.
o Policy support including flex-time and other lifestyle/workplace programs
to make participation easier.
o Administration support.
o Ongoing financial commitment for employees, programming, promotion
- Supportive company environment.
- Clear purpose and objectives
o Objectives measurable to include data collected on participation,
behaviour change and benefit usage.
- Focus on positive tangible organizational results.
o Goals measurable and achievable to assess the success in meeting the
- Involvement of all stakeholders.
- Quality professional leadership.
Employee Assistance Program (EAP) – Major Issues to Consider
- Who is eligible
o All staff o Only staff with below standard performances
o Staff family members
o Contract staff
o Retained staff and dependents
- What types of problems/issues should be addressed
o Alcohol and drug abuse
o Any personal/mental health problems
o Workplace stressors contributing to staff problems.
- Where should the program be located
o On company premises
o Off company premises
- Type of staff
o Volunteers (peers)
o Professional (internal)
o Professional (external)
- What type of EAP
o Assessment and referral to community resources
o Short term counseling
o Case management/aftercare
o Combination of above.
- Components of an EAP
o Policy and procedure manual
o Training supervisory staff
o Staff awareness sessions
o 24 hour availability
o Assessment and/or counseling
o Health promotion
o Workplace consultation
- Types of referrals
o Voluntary self-referral
o At suggestion of peer or supervisor
o Performance related
- Who provides the service
o Internal referral agents
o External professional EAP staff
- Which internal resource manages the EAP
o Human resources
o Joint labour/management group
o Medical/occupational health services
A Healthy Organization - Defined ‘as one w