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Human Resources Management
HRM 3400
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Occupational Health & Safety Management HRM 3400 – Winter 2012 – Anna Blake Lecture 11 – Corporate Social Responsibility & the Environment – Mar 26 What is Corporate Social Responsibility? - Social responsibility (is the) responsibility of an organization of the impacts of its decisions and activities on society and the environment: o Through transparent and ethical behaviour. o Consistent with sustainable development and the welfare of society. o Takes into account the expectations of stakeholders. o In compliance with applicable law and consistent with international norms of behaviour. o Integrated throughout the organisation. History of Corporate Social Responsibility - CSR involves a business identifying its stakeholder groups and incorporating their needs and values within the strategic and day-to-day decision-making process. - Business ‘society’ is defined by the number of stakeholders to which the organization has a ‘responsibility’. o Multinational oil company – global responsibility – global impact on environmental conditions. o Mom and pop grocery store – limited social responsibility. - Therefore can only use a vague definition. - CSR (Wikipedia, 2007) o A concept that organizations, especially (but not only) corporations, have an obligation to consider the interest of customers, employees, shareholders, communities, and ecological considerations in all aspects of their operations. - Stakeholders: employees, suppliers, customers and the communities in which they operated (includes protecting the environment). - Any program or activity engaged by a corporation that does not directly bring profit and at the same time creates tangible and intangible benefits for both the recipients and corporation itself. - Four aspects of CSR. o Moral (Ethical) o Reputation (or brand image) o License to operate (legal) o Sustainability (environment) - Charity is a legitimate aspect of CSR as long as it approached from a strategic perspective. o A responsible company must take into full account its impact on all stakeholders and on the environment when making decisions. o Must balance the needs of all stakeholders with its need to make a profit and reward stakeholders adequately. o Socially responsible activities. Earth’s Water Cycle - Never ending circulation of the earth’s water: o Condensation. o Evaporation. o Precipitation. - Water only changes from one form to another and moves from one place to another. Water Facts - 326 million cubic miles of water and over one million gallons of water per cubic mile. - All living things consist mainly of water – humans 60%. - 73% of Earth is covered in most part by water – Only 3% is fresh. - 6 countries (Brazil, Russia, Canada, Indonesia, China and Columbia) have 50% of the freshwater reserves. - One-third of the world’s population lives in ‘water-stressed’ countries. Pollution - Pollution is the action of environmental contamination with man-made waste. - Of all the first world countries, the United States is the most polluting nation. Air Pollutants - Primary air pollutants have a direct impact on the environment. o Oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen. o Volatile organic compounds. o Suspended particulate matter. o Photochemical oxidants. o Radioactive substances. o Hazardous air pollutants. - Secondary pollutants are formed from chemicals interacting with primary pollutants. The Greenhouse Effect - The process by which the greenhouse gasses in the earth’s atmosphere trap heat of the sun and prevent the Earth from freezing in the absence of sunlight. - A natural phenomenon which prevents stark temperature fluctuations on the Earth during the day and night. - Carbon dioxide, water vapour and methane in the Earth’s atmosphere prevent the energy of the sun from being radiated out into space by the Earth’s surface. Water Pollutants - Eight glasses o Infectious agents. o Oxygen-depleting wastes. o Inorganic chemicals. o Organic compounds. o Plant nutrient pollutants. o Sediments. o Radioactive materials. o Thermal pollution. Solid Pollutants - Pesticides o Persistence of pesticides in the soil is related to how quickly these chemicals degrade in the environment. o Three ways they degrade into the soil  Biodegradation (microorganism)  Chemical degradation (water)  Photochemical degradation (sunlight) o Three classes of pesticides  Insecticides kill insects.  Herbicides kill plants.  Fungicides kill fungus. - Others o Sulfates from Sulfuric acid rain. o Nitrites from Nitric acid rain. o Toxic metals. o Radioactive materials. Biomagnification - Refers to increase in concentration of the toxicant at successive trophic levels. - DDT is metabolized and excreted much more slowly than the nutrients that are passed from on trophic level to the next. - The DDT accumulates in the body (especially in the fat) causing the concentration of DDT to increase at successive levels in aquatic food chain. Environmental Legislation - Environmental regulation is shared between the federal government and the provinces. Municipalities also play a growing role. - Federal environmental laws are based on federal constitutional powers such as international borders; international relations; trade and commerce, navigation and shipping, seacoasts and fisheries, criminal law, and a somewhat contentious power to legislate in the national interest for ‘peace, order and good government’. - The federal government also has primary jurisdiction over federal works and undertakings, such as the land and activities of the federal government, its agencies and corporations, the armed forces and a variety of federally regulated entities such as the railways, aviation, interprovincial transport, grain elevators, etc. - Provincial environmental laws are based on provincial constitutional powers, such as
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