Occupational Health & Safety Management
HRM 3400 – Winter 2012 – Anna Blake
Lecture 12 – Health and Safety Management and Motivating Safety
Behaviours – Apr 2
- Safety behaviours
o Behaviours leading to safe performance of a particular job.
- Safety climate
o Shared perception of the importance of safety in the workplace.
- Safety compliance
o The extent to which employees follow safety rules and procedures.
- Safety initiative
o The extent to which employees go beyond compliance and to actively
o A person, place, thing or event that happens before a behaviour takes
place that encourages you to perform that behaviour.
o Antecedents only set the stage for behaviour or performance – they don’t
o Any directly measureable thing that a person does, including speaking,
acting and performing physical functions.
o Events that follow behaviours. Consequences increase or decrease the
probability that the behaviours will occur again in the future.
Both Positive (R+) and Negative (R-) Reinforcement Can Increase Behaviour
o Any consequence that follows a behaviour and increases the probability
that the behaviour will occur more often in the future – you get something
o A consequence that strengthens any behaviour that reduces or terminates
the behaviour – you escape or avoid something you don’t want.
The Behaviour Based Safety Challenge
- To create conditions that encourages people to collaborate because they want to
not because they have to.
Why Implement BBS?
- Safety is about people.
- Compliance is not sufficient. - Consequences drive behaviour.
- Performance feedback.
Three Essential Questions
- What behaviours are being observed?
- Why are those behaviours present?
- Now what will be done to correct the system deficiencies?
- Peer to peer observation.
- Supervisory observation.
- Behaviour audit.
- Software support.
- Customized behaviour inventories.
- General behaviour inventories.
- Emphasis on skilled coaching and feedback.
Behaviour Based Safety
- Three major sub-systems to deal with:
o The physical, the managerial, the behavioural.
- Identifying critical at-risk behaviours and the systems that support them.
- At-risk behaviour
o Normal human behaviour.
o People reacting to their environment.
- Deal with the causes of the at-risk behaviour, not the behaviour.
o Change the environment that leads to the at-risk behaviour.
Safety Observation Process
- Step 1 – Plan where and when to make observations and recall what to look for.
- Step 2 – Observe worker behaviour for safe and at-risk performance.
- Step 3 – Coach for improved performance by positively reinforcing or redirecting.
- Step 4 – Record what was observed why it occurred, and now what will be done.
- Data compilation.
- Safety involvement team.
- Problem solving.
- Implement solutions.
- Reactive behaviour.
o Adjusting PPE.
o Changing position / turning away.
o Stopping work / attaching safe guards. o Rearranging job.
- Personal protective equipment.
o Head gear