Occupational Health & Safety Management
HRM 3400 – Winter 2012 – Anna Blake
Lecture 10 – Hazard Control – Mar 19
- Refers to the program or process used to establish preventative and corrective
measures as the final stage of hazard recognition and assessment.
- Goal is to eliminate, reduce or control hazards in order to minimize loss.
o Barriers (e.g. machine guarding).
o Preventative maintenance.
- Policies and procedures
o Hot work.
o Confined space entry.
o Lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy).
- Administrative controls
o Medical surveillance.
o New equipment approval.
- Personal protective equipment.
- Build safety into new equipment.
- Physical barriers.
- Process modification (e.g. task automation).
- Machine guarding.
- Preventative maintenance.
- Moving parts have the potential for causing severe workplace injuries, including:
o Crushed fingers or hands.
- Any machine part, function or process which may cause injury must be
- Dangerous moving parts in these three basic areas need safeguarding:
o The point of operation
That point where work is performed on the material such as cutting,
shaping, boring or forming of stock.
o Power transmission apparatus All components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to
the part of the machine performing the work including flywheels,
pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, cranks.
o Other moving parts
All parts of the machines that move while the machine is working.
These can include rotating, transverse moving parts as well as
- Requirements for safeguards
o Safeguards must meet these minimum general requirements.
Protect from falling objects.
Create no new hazards.
Create no interference.
Allow safe lubrication.
o Safeguarding systems cannot offer effective protection unless the worker
knows how to use it and why.
o Thorough operator training should involve instruction or hands-on training.
Methods of Machine Guarding
o Presence sensing
o Safety control
Safety trip control.
Two handed grip.
- Potential feeding and ejection methods to improve safety for operator.
o Automatic feed.
o Semi-automatic feed. o Automatic ejection.
o Semi-automatic ejection.
- Miscellaneous aids
o Awareness barriers
o Miscellaneous protective shields.
o Hand-feeding tools and holding fixtures.
- Preventative maintenance is the orderly, uniform, continuous and scheduled
repair and maintenance of equipment, machinery and buildings.
- The preventative maintenance program includes:
o Requirements for pre-start up inspection.
o Preventative maintenance schedule.
o Continuous improvement.
Policies & Procedures
- Health and safety policy
- Record keeping.
- Work permits.
o Required when high-risk work is undertaken.
o Work permits required for each type of hazardous work.
• The sparks and molten globules thrown off by hot work are
uncontrollable ignition sources that can fly and roll a
• Could start a fire or cause an explosion if they fall on
combustible material. The combustible material is not always
visible to the person performing the hot work.
• Work in confined space can be really dangerous due to:
o The potential for buildup of hazardous gases or dust.
o Concentrations of oxygen that can result in the
immediate life-threatening hazards of suffocation, fire
Lockout / tagout.
- Change control program
Hot Work Permit
- Required for any temporary operation producing open flame, sparks or heat.
- This includes:
o Brazing. o Soldering.
o Torch-applied roofing.
- Completed prior to beginning Hot Work.
- At minimum, the permit must contain the following information:
o Location of the work to be done.
o Date that the work will be done.
o The names of the people performing the work.
o The nature of the job.
o Permit expiry date and time.
Written Confined Space Program
- Identify all existing and potential confined spaces.
- Require an assessment to be done of the hazards in the space.
- Require a plan to control the hazards applicable for each confined space entry.
- Provide training.
- Establish an entry permit system.
- Provide emergency equipment.
- Provide for an emergency response.
Confined Space – Hazard Assessment
- Qualified worker carries out an assessment of the hazards in the confined space
o Hazards due to the design, location or use of the confined space.
o Hazards that may develop during work activity inside the confined space.
Oxygen enrichment of deficiency.
Flammable gas, vapour or mist.
Other hazardous atmosphere.
Engulfment, entrapment, or other hazardous conditions.
Confined Space – Entry Permit System
- For each confined space and specifies.
o The length of time for which an entry permits is valid.
o The identity and activity of each worker entering the confined space.
o Location of confined space.
o Results of the atmospheric testing.
o Applicable precautions.
- Permits is to be posted at the confined space.
Control of Hazardous Energy – Lockout / Tagout
- Used to protect employees from accidental injury through unintended machine
motion or release of energy. - A proper lockout must shut down all possible sources of energy and motion and
must only be performed by an authorized person.
- All energized machines and equipment must be locked out and/or tagged out
when any of the following conditions occur:
o The employee must either remove or bypass machine guards or other
safety devices, resulting in exposure to hazards at the point of operation.
o The employee is required to place any part of his/her body in contact with
the point of operation of an operational machine or piece of equipment.
o The employee is required to place any part of his/her body into a danger
zone associated with a machine operating cycle.
Lockout / Tagout Definitions
- Affected employee
o A person whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or
equipment on which services or maintenance is being performed under
lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in
which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
- Authorized employee
o A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment to perform
service or maintenance on that particular item. An affected employee
becomes an authorized employee when that employee’s duties include
performing service or maintenance or energized machines or equipment.
- Energy source
o Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical,
- Energy isolating device
o A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release
of energy, including but not limited to the following: a manual operated
circuit breaker, a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which
the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded
supply conductors; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to
block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches and other control
circuit devices are not energy-isolated devices.
o The placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device
according to an established procedure; this ensures that the energy
isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated
until the lockout device is removed.
- Lockout device
o A device that uses a lock, either key or combination type, to hold an
energy isolating device in a safe position and prevent the energizing of a
machine or other equipment.
Change Control Procedures - Change control procedures ensure that any changes introduced into the
workplace will be meet previously established workplace health and safety
standards and legislative requirements:
- Changes include but are not limited to:
o Methods and processes.
o Purchasing of new equipment/ chemicals/ materials.
o Workplace design.
- Examples of when training may occur, include:
o Orientation and new-hire training (orientation to the workplace and job
specific training) to all employees new to the company.
o Instruction in a new job when a person is promoted or transferred.
o Introduction of new equipment, processes, or procedures.
o Inadequate safety performance by individuals or groups of employees.
o Change in legislation that requires new knowledge or processes.
o New chemical introduced to department.
o New process for using a chemical.
- Training documentation includes:
o Training outlines.
o Training attendance records.
o Matrix of training requirements and completion.
Personal Protective Equipment
- PPE is used wherever hazards cannot be completely eliminated or adequately
controlled by other control methods.
- Personal protective equipment:
o Is selected and used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions
and recognized standards, and to provide adequate protection against the
hazards for which they were designed.
o Is not to create a hazard to the wearer.
o Is to be compatible, so that one item of personal protective equipment
does not make another item ineffective, and
o Is maintained in good working order and in sanitary condition.
Elements of the Personal Protective Equipment Program
- The following elements are essential for the PPE program:
o PPE assessment.
Identify the job and the tasks associated with performing the job.
Determine the hazards and potential accidents associated with the
job tasks. Include data from the job task analysis and data from any
other monitoring assessments (air, noise, etc.) that have been
completed for the job. Determine the PPE required to protect the employee from hazards
by following the following guidelines:
• Become familiar with the potential hazards and the types of
protective equipment that is available and what it can do.
• Select the PPE which ensures a level of protection greater
than the minimum required to protect employees from the
Reassess hazards as necessary, identifying and evaluating new
equipment and processes, reviewing accident records and re-
evaluating the suitability of previously selected PPE.
PPE Program – Training
- All employees who are provided PPE are to receive training. This training can be
part of the job/task specific training.
- Training includes:
o Health effects associated with exposure to the hazard.
o When, why and what PPE is neces