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Human Rights and Equity Studies
HREQ 1920
Elizabeth Brule

PART 1 – Anatomy and Destiny: Biological Arguments about Gender Differences 9/18/2012 4:51:00 AM Introduction Gender is changeable  some experiences are more strongly gendered than others; gender interacts with forms of categorization such as RACE, CLASS, SEXUALITY, AND RELIGION – influencing individual identities. Individual experiences of gender are diverse  there are two near universal phenomena that define gender in every culture.  Virtually every single society differentiates people on the basis of gender  Every known society is based on male domination „Sex‟ is male and female Gender refers to cultural definitions of masculinity and femininity – the meaning of maleness and femaleness. What it means to be a man or woman will vary in four significant ways:  The meanings of gender differences vary from one society to another  the experiences of being masculine or feminine vary within any one culture over time.  The meaning of masculinity and femininity will change over the life course as any individual person grows.  The meanings of gender will vary among different groups of women and men within any particular culture at any particular time. The important elements of a sociological approach is to explore the differences among men and women. - cannot speak of masculinity or femininity as though they were constant.  Gender is an ever changing assemblage of meanings, behaviours, opportunities and resources.  Expressions of masculinity and femininity are more powerful and persuasive than others North Americans  try to avoid excessive resemblance to the other gender  “Hegemonic definition” – powerful in our society due to the critics and dissenters. “In an important sense there is only one complete unblushing male …any male who fails to qualify … view himself as …-unworthy, incomplete and inferior.” – GOFFMAN,1963: 128 „EMPHASIZED FEMININITY”  oriented to accommodating the interests and desires of men  fragility in mating scenes  compliance with men‟s desire for titillation  ego stroking in office relationship  acceptance of marriage and childcare as a response to labour market discrimination against women  exaggerates gender difference as a strategy of adaptation to men‟s power‟ stressing empathy and nurturance  „real‟ womanhood is described as fascinating and women are advised that they can wrap men around their fingers. „INSTITUTION‟  recurrent patters of interactions connected through shared agendas and goals Gendered individuals do not inhabit gender neutral social situations, they contend; both individual and institution bear the mark of gender  Primary institution to teach „gender‟ is family  gendered and gendering „GENDER VIOLENCE‟  perpetrated by people who believe that some aspect of their gender legitimates their use of violence against others who appear to threaten their gendered world. Statistician  “Within group variation consistently exceeds between group variations” Pop culture  Men aren‟t Mars and women are from Venus, in the end, we are all from earth. Chapter 1: Psychological Sex Differences through Sexual Selection TUTORIAL 1 9/18/2012 4:51:00 AM First bit of readings  “Anatomy is Destiny”  physically how your born … you are put into that gender role sex – is your physical gender – is performance Male versus female  Guys take up a lot of space, more relaxed  Girls or restricted With all these differences there should be something biological binaries  dicotemys  male vs female Intersexed  both …some variation of male and female in their body… both testes and ovary tissues. What is human nature? It is natural and inevitable (no control) we look at things historically and cross culturally (it applies to every culture).  if it is not same in every culture then it is not human nature. Gender is not human nature … it is not inevitable! (a tribe does it differently). The idea of instinct  not true ANATOMY 9/18/2012 4:51:00 AM Sociobiology/ Biological determinism  know this term! Tends to be simplistic ….does not hold up when it takes the studies to humans. - they say the females are putting all of their reproductive strategies into getting pregnant - came from 64 studies by MR. WILSON! On fruitflies “Shes not into you”  guys are supposed to chase girls and girls are a certain way. science trying t
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