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Lecture 2

HREQ 1920 Lecture 2: 2-11-1394371640-2. Humanities-A reflection of women in the 21st century-Debjani Roy

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Department
Human Rights and Equity Studies
Course
HREQ 1920
Professor
Elizabeth Brule
Semester
Summer

Description
IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature (IMPACT: IJRHAL) ISSN(E): 2321-8878; ISSN(P): 2347-4564 Vol. 2, Issue 3, Mar 2014, 7-12 ' Impact Journals A REFLECTION OF WOMEN IN THE 21ST CENTURY IN WORKING SECTOR DEBJANI ROY Research Scholar, CJMC - Visva Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India ABSTRACT Women are the new paradigms of today’s culture beginning from home to working sector. Women work in three criteria. Women are taking active participation in management, local governance and political fields. Women trend in working sector has changed with globalization. Women are involved in SNA activities. A survey has also been conducted about the nature of women work behaviour. A significant part of women are unpaid because they are socially unrecognised. Women work is rendered invisible because of social perceptions. Women are the resource of our country in every field. Women have shifted traditional assumptions about their roles and capabilities. Women have basic rights about decision making. There are facts and figures about women participating in different roles. In this era women have made comprehensive steps in educational attainment and workforce participation. Women participation in work is one of the proxy indicators of women in overall status in society and gender empowerment. Women are managing complex interfaces between domestic and work culture. This is the very power of women in this 21 century. KEYWORDS: SNA Activities, NSSO Survey, Mercer Survey, Gender Segregation INTRODUCTION Women’s empowerment is not a new word in today’s gender literature. Women are becoming more and more self dependent by accessing to all opportunities which women were denied in the past. Women have possessed the power to utilise power in every field. The role of women is rooted into eternity. A woman goes under many transitions. It takes time for women to unfold her into self established person. There are two types of struggling women in the community. One who has highly established and the other in a struggling society to confine herself into proper designation. Gone are the days when men overruled women in each sphere and gone are the days when women were denied of freedom and opportunities. Now women are setting up enterprises and taking up income generated activities maintaining family. The role of Indian women has ranged from that of a deity from pure to vulgar from being supreme to downtrodden and also innumerable manifestations of virtue or vice. Indian women have undergone drastic change. Now this change is due to increase in globalization, impact of technology, impact of media and other cultures, impact of social, economic and political cross currents of the world, and unforeseen and unanticipated events across the world. The social cultural context of women growing up remained the same for thousands of years, political ideology and governance of a nation emerged from the 1940s in India, industrialization took roots and mass education for both women and men. Women has to play multiple roles sometimes role of wife or mother or role of parents or daughter and simultaneously in the social setting to play different roles in community and doing this she has to submerge her own self role and real identity. This is the century of telecom, IT and financial institutions. Women expertise in all the industries is beginning to emerge and women are emerging as a force to reckon it. The transition will be where women will create new paradigms. (Parikh, 2005) Impact Factor(JCC): 1.1783 - This article can be downloaded from www.impactjournals.us 8 Debjani Roy Conceptual Framework of Women Empowerment One has to view that empowerment is taking place on different levels and change is very necessary at all levels. We can relate it on basis of three criteria – on individual, group and societal/ community level and interaction between them. Individual means the perception of oneself to control herself and identify goal and work till it is reached. Group deals with collective action and sense of agency that woman experience in a group. Society level deals with political and social climate its norms and public discourse on what is possible and impossible for women. The three levels are interconnected and mutually reinforcing. Globalization has presented new challenges for the realization of the goal of women’s equality, the gender impact of which has not been systematically evaluated fully. From micro-level there is need for reframing policies for access to employment and quality of employment. Benefits of growing global economy have been unevenly distributed leading to wider economic disparities, the feminization of poverty, increased gender inequality through deteriorating working conditions and unsafe working environment especially in the informal economy and rural areas. Strategies will be designed to enhance the capacity of women and empower them to meet the negative social and economic impacts which may flow from the globalization process. Facts and Figures of Women Employees A new Mercer survey on women’s leadership development shows about 15% of the respondents were from Indian organizations, companies must adopt a philosophy encouraging talented women to lead from front. 73% companies don’t have a strategy for developing women in leadership roles. 42% companies do not offer activities targeted to the needs of women leaders. 23% companies offer some activities or programs for women. 9% companies are planning to add programmes and activities in the future. 20% companies are very concerned about retaining women in leadership roles. 20% companies want to have work – life programmes to attract and retain female talent. 81% companies want to help women develop the full range of skills for senior leadership roles. Many respondents believe that women have the right stuff to be leaders. The public rates women superior to men according to the survey conducted. 6% of respondents in this survey of 2,250 adults say that women make better leaders than men. 69% says men and women make equally good leaders. In this era women have made comprehensive steps in educational attainment and workforce participation. Only few have made to the higher level of political or corporate leadership. Respondents also said those women’s family responsibilities and their shortage of experience holds them back from upper level. What respondents did not state is that women lack what it takes to be leaders. Respondents rate women better than or equal to men. Half of the respondents said that women are more honest than men and honesty according to respondents is the most important to leadership of any of the traits measured in the survey. The next important leadership trait in public view is intelligence where 38% said women are smarter than men while 14% said men are smarter. (DR Nirzar Kulkarni, 2011) Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to [email protected] A Reflection of Women in the 21st Century in Working Sector 9 Women in Management In the words of Kristof and WuDunn (2009): The world is awakening to a powerful truth: women and girls aren’t the problem, they’re the solution. Women have increased their participation rates in managerial and professional jobs but they are paid less even working on the same position compared to men in the levels of management. This is often called gender segregation. However, it should be noted that there is crisis of statistics and research on certain minority groups with female management population in 20 countries. There were an increasing proportion of women entrepreneurs and small business owners in almost all countries but the growth is slow like in Argentina and in most countries these proportions were low like in Israel and Turkey. (Burke) Women are the most underutilized natural resource in the world. CARE, USA Local Governance In India, UN Women has helped more than 65,000 elected women representatives in village councils in five states acquire skills and confidence to advocate their priorities. Where women once felt intimated as the men talked they now speak up. They ask for new services such as systems to ease the burdens of water collection and improve sanitation and mobilize efforts to prevent child marriage and stop alcohol abuse. (UN Women, 2012-2013) Women’s Participation in India There has not been much research on female labour force participation in India but its participation is low compared to other countries. In 1998 India’s Central Statistical Organization conducted a time use survey in six states for which household duties were classified as “extended-SNA” activities. The survey showed that urban women spent about nine hours per week on SNA activities. Analyzing women’s participation decision at the individual level based on a sample of urban women aged 20 to 59 excluding women who are enrolled in education or unable to work due to disability and women who are head of their household. Self- employed women are dropped from the sample due to the non-availability of self-employment earnings data. It is assumed that women’s participation decision is made conditional on men’s so we do not consider joint utility maximization or bargaining within household. (Pieters, 2012) Implications There were some tangible signs of progress though uneven and indications of stalling and back-sliding. More women are now in the workforce. More women are getting the necessary education and experience to equip them for success in the workforce. The work and life experiences of women in several countries in the developing world indicated many distressing features. Women worldwide still lack basic rights such as education, freedom from violence, opportunities to pursue what many of us see as taken for granted options and justice in the workplace and in their societies. Recent Trends in Patterns of Women’s Work It is true that compared too many other countries there has been relative stability of aggregate female work participation rates in India which have remained quite low over time. But there are wide variations and differing trends across states and rural and urban areas as well as changes in the pattern of work. Meanwhile in rural India self-employment Impact Factor(JCC): 1.1783 - This article can be downloaded from www.impactjournals.us 10 Debjani Roy has come to dominate women’s activities even in non-agri
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