DEVIANCE HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL CONTROL
LECTURE 4 AND 5: OCTOBER 6TH, 2011
➔ Rise of other new ways of thinking of the world we live in; scientific ways. The dominant
paradigm: the human being as an animal. Darwin; natural selection, developed out of different
life forms and that we have common ancestry that are closest to apes and so on. This caused
people to go to an uproar.
➔ Not in a superstitious era and yet people still listen. This is what is happening now. We do not
live in an era based on evolution and yet we follow.
➔ There is always a contest and debate over knowledge between many people: political, scientists,
academic, researchers etc.
➔ Some people do not want to accept the truth so they oppose the views at large in a destructive
➔ This new thought based on Darwinism created a new paradigm that contained problems.
➔ Positivism: refers to the methods of the natural sciences; being able to prove something using
empirical evidence. This became the new way of doing things in the sciences.
➔ The ways we understand a phenomenon affect the way we develop our social policies and
➔ Biological paradigm: no free will; individuals are born criminal. There is no such thing as a
BORN CRIMINAL. NO SUCH THINGAS ACRIMINAL. There is only criminal behaviour!
They may engage in this behaviour at one particular time and not another.
➔ How human beings are exposed to criminality...
➔ No free will because the behaviour is being controlled by biology (born criminal)
➔ Darwinistic theory applies to the individual being more animalistic and criminal, less involved
and applied to the society in which we live, hence the concept of social Darwinism which was
coined by Herbert Spencer.
➔ Some people wanted to apply this theory to human societies meanwhile evolutionary principles
cannot be applied because a human society is not a living thing.
➔ WHY IS HUMAN SOCIETY NOT EXPLAINABLE THROUGH THE CONCEPT OF
NATURAL SELECTION? (test) Because it is not a living thing, it is not an organism, it is
socially constructed, does not follow natural laws but human laws. (i.e. Politicians create laws
to control crime).
➔ Social Darwinism is still one of the widespread held onto beliefs
➔ PYRAMID OF POWER IS A HIERARHY SIMILIAR TO THE ANIMAL WORLD
(important). First word used to describe this is NATURAL. Natural explains everything and
nothing because everything is natural so its general and does not specify. This would bring up
the concept of survival of the fittest which is how this relates to Darwinism. Filtering
mechanism based on competition. Those who make money at high rates deserve too and those
who are poor put themselves in that position.Animal world: needs cooperation. The idea that
we can understand this world through evolutionary concepts is known as Social Darwinism.
➔ Occupy Wall Street: constant protesting
➔ People are mad about the secrets the government has been keeping and the fact that so many of
the elite are criminals.
➔ The society we live in cannot be understood in terms of evolutionary principles
➔ Biology is Destiny
➔ Genes do not determine in the ultimate sense. Gene expressions ca change based on
environmental factors. Two twins: both fed the same things but one got extra nutrition and was in the future more successful, did well on tests, tall, healthy etc
➔ Biology is flexible and plastic
➔ Thought our personality and character were based on physiological features
➔ Skulls: objects of scientific curiosity (cave man skulls, neanderthals)
➔ ALL KNOWLEDGE IS BIASED
➔ We all have genetic material In us that connects us to an ancestor inAfrica. The British were
offended by this and could not accept it.
➔ Cesare Lombroso: maybe some humans are not progressed enough
➔ Atavism: certain beings were less developed and were more ape like than human
➔ Cannot have people less evolved than others when we all exist in the same time
➔ Mistake: put his conclusions before his evidence
➔ People in prisons are criminals and they are more ape like and less involved (hypothesis)
➔ Good Soldier Versus Viscous Comrad: because he had tattoos he was bad
➔ His ideas fit in with the thinking of the times which is why he supports Darwin's theories
➔ Lombroso”s ideas were eventually discounted because other theories were formed.
Measurement of skulls, teeth etc are the same as those in prison
➔ Criminal Profiling!
➔ Scientists are not immune from bias
➔ He argued that women were less evolutionary developed than men
➔ EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGYAND EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY: dominant paradigm
of science today
➔ Certain i