HUMA 1825 Lecture Notes - Theological Virtues, Cardinal Virtues, Catharism
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HUMA 1825 Note 4
- What is the idea of science in Aristotle, that leads up to Aquinas but is very
different in the contemporary world?
- Euclid 300 BCE: Associated with Geometry, makes general laws that you can
contemplate “Between any two points there is a straight line” (Grasping an
eternal truth”. A circle can have any radius. If you have a line, there is only
one that is parallel to it: General, logical laws of thinking through
- Contemplating the eternal, unchangeable: the truth is beyond the senses.
- Galileo (16th-17th century) and Newton (17th-18th century). Science was the
understanding of senses.
- He’s a scholastic member
o It was a movement started by Anselm of Canterbury
o Aquinas started using logic to make sense of religion. There was a
tension before about how to make sense of this.
o Anselm used philosophy to make biblical ideas
What is God? Most Supreme Being. Even the fool (atheist)
admits that the idea of a supreme being, you must also include
that being exist, it’s more perfect in being than in thinking.
If God is thinkable, he exists.
o Pierre Abelard: wrote a book called “Sic et Non” (yes and no). He
would use philosophy to try to explain religion. For every question
there’s a pro and con. “You’d have to think it through for yourself”
Aquinas also starts with the objectives, and then goes into
proving his point. You can be a religious person, but you use
philosophy to be a better religious person.
- He’s a Dominican religious order
o They were established around 1200-1225 in the south of France
(borders of Spain). They were originally established to deal with the
problem of the movement of people who are questioning the church.
Cathars? No idea. All their writings were eliminated and all of
their leaders killed.
They criticized corruption in the church (power). They
church who regulated moral life were corrupt. They
were filling their own coffers and pockets.
The Divine and the Human are separate. When you are
religious you shouldn’t be interested in getting wealth.
Cathars were pretty sweet: they supported Judaism
during a anti-sematic time.
o They were also vegetarians
Dominicans: taught that piety (being a good Christian) means
being very humble. They were appealing to the Cathars.
Religion involves a personal relationship with God.
Friendship. This criticized the Catharian doctrine that
that Divine was beyond.
- What is Aquinas’ relation to Aristotle?
o Virtues: what does he get from Aristotle?
The four cardinal virtues: justice, prudence, courage, and
Justice (what) and Prudence (how)= intellectual virtues:
they tell you what is good. A knowledge; you use your
intellect to know
Courage and Moderation = moral virtues: about the will.
No concept of will in Greek writing. Your ability to
implement/achieve that good. To act.
o What does he add to Aristotle?
He adds theological virtues: three main kinds. All about God
Faith: intellectual virtue: tells you what the highest good
Hope: moral virtue: achieving something. Achieving the
Love (charity): (no such thing for Aristotle. No love).
He says that the Theological virtues complete the
cardinal virtues. He says that Love is the highest of
virtues (love to God) it protects all things, makes all
Therefore, Courage = sense of will, moral courage.
Happiness: Aristotle says happiness is the highest good.
You need material wealth. In Aquinas happiness is a
relation with a beyond (higher ideal/feeling of love
- What is morality?
o Theology, politics, human behaviours and interaction:
o How did this change?
- Before and during Aquinas the church told you what was permissible in your
- In Hart, it’s not the church that tells you what to do; there are individuals
who make decisions.
Whether law is something pertaining to reason
- Law: the kind of rule and measure. It may be as in that that measures in rules
(active). Or, it can be in that which is measured and ruled (passive)
Euclid 300 bce: associated with geometry, makes general laws that you can contemplate between any two points there is a straight line (grasping an eternal truth . If you have a line, there is only one that is parallel to it: general, logical laws of thinking through contemplation. Contemplating the eternal, unchangeable: the truth is beyond the senses. Galileo (16th-17th century) and newton (17th-18th century). He"s a scholastic member: it was a movement started by anselm of canterbury, aquinas started using logic to make sense of religion. There was a tension before about how to make sense of this: anselm used philosophy to make biblical ideas. Even the fool (atheist) admits that the idea of a supreme being, you must also include that being exist, it"s more perfect in being than in thinking. If god is thinkable, he exists: pierre abelard: wrote a book called sic et non (yes and no). He would use philosophy to try to explain religion.