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HUMA 1100
Loredana Kun

HUMA 1100 Tutorial - Sept 13 The Roots of Greek culture, history and literature Greeks are called Hellenes Alphabet: 24 letters, starting with (Α) alpha and ending with (Ω) omega **Alphabets are important because it allowed them to writer as well as speak** City states: Polis (plural-poeleis) Exegesis is a Greek term meaning critical explanation, analysis Patriarchy: men or father is in power Physis: Emotional, weak, irrational (Women are usually represented as this) Nomos: Men made laws, rationality, and stability Most of the stories are based on myth Myth: a story, plot, speech Polytheism: the belief of more than on god Moira: Destiny, fate HUMA 1100 Lecture- Sept 14 Timeline of Greek history and literature  Neolithic (6000-3000 BC)  Minion (3000-1500 BC)  Middle Bronze Age (2000 BC)  Late Bronze Age (1700-1100 BC)  Dark age (1100-850 BC)  Geometric and archaic period (850-480 BC)  High classical period (480–323 BC)  Hellenistic period HUMA 1100 Lecture- Sept 13 Greek Timeline Mycenaen Period (ca.1550-1000 B.C.) The Mycenaean Period, which is also referred to as the Late Bronze Age, witnessed the peak of Greek economic and social development. The writing system, which is called Linear B, was used during this time. Discovered in 1939, the palace of Mycenaean Kind Nestor was excavated by Carl Blegen and hundreds of tablet in the ancient Linear B script were found. Olive oil jugs and different types of vases were found in this picturesque place. In this period, the Trojan War occurred, but around 11100 Mycenaean culture startedto collapse and the Dark Age started in Greece. The Dark Age (1100-850 B.C.) This period is the transition from Bronze to Iron Age wih the Greel settlements throughout the Aegean Islands and the coast of Asia Minor. This was the time of social disorganization, depopulation, and economic failure. The Archaic Period (750-480 B.C.) The Greek culture began to recover from 750 to 480 B.C. in the Archaic Period, the time of growth and expansion, which was to last until the Persian wars in 490-480 B.C. A recognizable sense of national identity appeared in the eighth century B.C., perhaps first expressed un the founding of the Olympic Games in 776 B.C. It continued and was strengthened by waves of Greek colonists who set out to found Greek cities all over the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black seas. Coming into contact with foreign, unfamiliar, native populations, the colonists became increasingly aware of their common bons with those left behind on the Greek mainland, however great the local and tribal differences might have been within Greece itself. Contacts with the east led to the introduction of the alphabet wia Pheomicia, and after a lapse of 500 years the Greeks became literate once again. To this same early period should be dated the earliest Greek literature- the poems of Hesoid and the two epics ascribed to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey. In political life aristocracies lost control of tyrants, leaders who seized and held power unconstitutionall though often as champions of the common people, were substituted. Individual city-states prospered, often on a nearly eequal footing, each following its own inclination in politics, art and culture. Unified co-operation was rarely recocognized as either nessessary of desirable, until the threat of the Persian invasion early in fifth century. The Greeks repelled the Persians after four major battles in Greece itself, at Marathon (490 B.C.), Thermoplai (480 B.C.), Salamis (480 B.C.) and Plataea (479 B.C.), but not before the invaders had devastated the city of Athen. Successful leadership In the war left two cities dominant in Greece: Athens and Sparta. HUMA 1100 The Classical Period (480-323 B.C.) The fifth and fourth centuries B.C., which are also referred to as the Classical Period, are regarded as the high point of Greek civilization, primarily in Athens. These are the years of exceptional relativity when Greek architecture, sculpture and vase-painting reached their height, match by parallel achievements in philosophy, literature, art and theatre. During this time prominent philosophical thinkers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, and the tragedian Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides wrote their remarkable works. In this same period, the uniquely Greek political invention of democracy was established. Herodotus was the earliest Greek historian who lived from ca. 484 to 425 B.C. during his lifetime he was known as the father of history, but was first accorded this title in Ciceros writing De Lgibus where Cicero wrote “apud Herodotum patrem historiae”. Herodotus is a promienet historical figure, and his Histories apodeksis or Historaia are charming information of ancient Greece. Diodoros Sikeliotes was a Greek historian who lived from ca. 90-21 B.C. He wrote Bibioltheke historike, a work which collect the history of the world in forty books. Pausanian was a Greek historian who lived during the second century A.D. he complete the Guide to Greece in 170 A.D., which provides a detatiled account of ancient monuments. Through the work, we become familiarized with Myceneanae as being “rich with gold” and Tiryans being a :mighty-walled” citadel (teichiosessa) from the Homeric tradtion. Pausenaias was not only a historian, but an avid traveller and geographer, who witnessed himself the ruins of these cities (Pausanias Perrieeses Hellados II, 16). He shared the personal observations he made during travel, stating for example HUMA 1100 Lecture - Sept 21 The First Greeks  Show a degree of artistic sophistication  The archeological record suggests that Greeks established themselves around 2000 B.C.  Greek was certainly being used un Greece around 1250 B.C  Hundreds of clay tablets written in Greek found in Knossos, Mycenae, Pylos and Thebes  The island of the Aegean produced elegant and recognizable “Cyclade culture”, named after the islands, the Cyclades  CC is recognized by the pottery, marble, vessels and figurines  The island of Thera, or Santorini, some 112 km (70 miles) north of Crete, is still an active volcano  Greeks had their own myths and legends concerning own origins Prometheus- framed for giving mankind fire The dromos (entrance passage) to a tholos tomb at Mycenae known as the tomb of Clytemnestra (the unfaithful wife and murderess of Agamemnon, herself killed by her son Orestes). Nine such tholos tombs are known from Mycenae Early Greek History 1. Early Greek History  Problems of reconstructing Greek history are similar to those observed in ancient Jewish history: texts written at time far removed from the events, stories are a blend of mythological elements and historical details intent of stories is not to report historical details, literature is a compilation of stories from disparate tribes  The story of the Minotaur: the king of the Phoenician city of Tyre had a daughter named Europa. She is kidnapped by the god Zeus who appeared to her in the form of a bull. Zeus swam to Crete with Europa on his back. Europa and Zeus have a son named Minos who became lord of the kingdom of Knossos. Minos’ rule is challenged so he prays to Poseidon, who sends a bull from the sea as a sign validating Minos’ rule. Awes by its beauty, Minos decides not to sacrifice the bull in Poseidon’s honor. For revenge, Poseidon makes Minos’ wife, Pasiphae bears a half-human, half-animal monster. Minos kept the monster in a maze called the Labyrinth. The king of Athens was forced to pay tribute.  Mycenaean’s named for the mainland palace center at Mycenae; become international with contacts as far as western Mediterranean and settlements in Asia Minor; wall paintings in palaces depict them as aggressive, excessively violent  Trojan War (ca. 12 century BCE); story told in Homer’s lliad: Agamemnon, the king of Mycenae is brother of king Menelaus of Sparta. Menelaus’ wife Helen is abducted by Paris, a son of the king of Troy for ten years. The war ends with a clever attack using the Trojan horse.  End of Mycenaean civilization comes in waves ca. 1250-1150 BCE; the people are dispersed  Mycenaean Greeks replaced about a century later by new people called the Dorians HUMA 1100  1100-800 BCE dark age in Greek civilization; lack of historical evidence for civilization in this period; perhaps returned to pastoral life 2. The Archaic Period (800-500 BCE)  Huge population boom; transition from pastoral living to farming economy Polytheism of ancient Greece  Religion is a system of human belief, ideals and practices  Latin word religion means ritual, superstition, “supernatural feeling”, sanctity Ancient Greek religion  Polytheism  Belief in many gods  Creation is first, then the gods  The gods are immortal  The gods are within fate  Religion prevails in society  No scripture or dogma  Based on rituals Judaism, Christianity, Islam  Monotheism  Belief in one god  God is first, then creation  God is eternal  God is beyond fate  Religion is restricted  Scripture and dogma  Belief, then ritual HUMA 1100 Greek Gods  The “twelve” Olympian Gods of Greece (Roman names in parenthesis); becomes conventional in the 5 c.  Zeus (Jupiter) the father od the gods and men, ruler of the heavens; weapon was thunder and an eagle bore his thunderbolts  Poseidon (Neptune), ruler of the ocean  Hades (Pluto) ruler of the underworld  Hera (Juno), wife of Zeus, goddess of family  Ares (Mars), god of war son of Hera and Zeus  Aphrodite (Venus), goddess of love and beauty; son Euros (Cupid)  Apollo(Apollo), son of Zeus and Leto; god of prophecy, healing, and music; patron of archery, music and medicine  Hephaestus (Vulcan), son of Zeus and Hera; the “smith” god, i.e. the craftsman, therefore associated with fire  Hermes (Mercury), son of Zeus and Maia; presided over commerce, wrestling and other gymnastic activities, even over thieving  Athena (Minerva), goddess of the crafts, wisdom, and a virgin; patron goddess of Athens.  Artemis (Diana), virgin goddess of the hunt and chastity, sister of Apollo  Dionysus (Bacchus), god of wine, joy and fertility and son of Zeus and Semele; also represents wine’s social and beneficent influences so that he is viewed as the promoter of civilization and a lawgiver and a lover of peace. Greek Tragedy 1. Origins and timeline of Greek drama 2. Staging an ancient Greek play 3. Parts of a Greek theater  Orchestra: literally “dancing space”  Theatron: “viewing place”  Skene: “tent”, usually decorated as a palace or temple being the stage  Parodos: “passageways” (pl. parodoi) 4. Structure of the plays  Prologos: opening of the play  Parodos: entrance of the chorus  Epeisodion: scene when the characters and chorus talk (pl. epeisodia)  Stasimon: chloral ode that the chorus sings while dancing  Exodos: departure of the chorus at the conclusion 5. Types of Greek Drama  Tragedy: serious plays based on Greek myth; tragos “goat” = oidos “song”; “goat-sing”, “goat-ode”, 33 tragedies survived  Satyr Plays: funny plays based on Greek myth, 1 complete satyr play survived 6. The ancient tragic playwrights  Aeschylus (c. 525-456) about 80 plays, seven survived  Sophocles (c. 496-406) about 120 plays, seven survived  Euripides (c. 484-406) 92 plays, nineteen survived HUMA 1100 Tutorial - Sept 27 Physis: Medea Nomos: Jason Test 1 October 11 2012 I. Identify and define 5 out of 8 names, terms or concepts, specify and explain its significance in 4 or 5 sentences 1. Medea 11. Athena 2. Physis 12. Dionysus 3. Nomos 13. The Archaic Period 4. Herodotus 14. The Mycenacean Period 5. Pausanias 15. Jason 6. Boustrophedum 16. Oedipus 7. Zeus 17. Jocasta 8. Aphodite 18. Teiresias 9. Poseidon 19. Prophets 10. Apollo HUMA 1100 II. Write a short essay (1-2 pages) Example of part I. Medea  Medea is a character from a Greek tragedy by Euripides th  In the 50 century (431 B.C.)  First performed at a festival  Significant because shows how unfortunate women are and the misfortune their given  Example of Physis  Shows men that they have to be careful HUMA 1100 Lecture - Sept 28 Euripides’ Medea  Greek tragedy presented in Great Dionysia in 421 BC  Legend of Jason and Medea  Euripides version of the legend  Structure of Euripides’ Medea  Catastrophic story: rational argument versus irrational one  Euripides’ portrait of Medea: dominant woman, wife, mother, irrational, impulsive, motional, hyperactive, destructive and barbarian. Euripides’ portrait of Jason; hero, husband, rational, calm, logical, weakling, detached, civilized, Greek  Jason and Medea: Nomos and Physis respectively Nomos: man made laws, order, civilization, control, and stability Physis: natural laws instinct, chaos, destruction I. Euripides and his world o Born in 480 BC on the day of the victory over Persians (Battle of salamis) o Competed in 22 festivals and it took him 14 years to win first prize. o Wrote at least 88 plays, he was an active writer o Won first prize only give times because he was deemed strange and eccentric by Athenians, he loved his solitude (wrote in a cave on Salamis island) o He was unpopular with the judges and audience because of his antisocial habits and controversial plays o Very influential figure in the intellectual revolution of Greece, associated with the sophists o Died in 406 B.C. in Macedonia II. Legend of Jason and Medea o Jason, born to king Aeson from Loleus in Thessaly o Jason’s uncle Pelias usurps the throne, Jason is smuggled out of Oeleus o Jason returns to Loleus to reclaim the throne o Pelias promises to step down if Jason can fetch the Golden Fleece from Colchis. Jason gathers companions for his journey (the Argonauts). They sail on the Argo. o At Colchis, king Aeetes sets various tasks for him. The kings daughters Medea helps him o Jason and Medea flee with the Golden Fleece. Medea chops up her brother and scatters his body parts to delay her fathers pursuit o Pelias kills Jason’s father Aeson, and Jason persuades Medea to help him take revenge o Pelias is “rejuvenated” o Jason and Medea go to Corinth. Jason deserts Medea in order to marry the Corinthian princess o Medea takes vengeance on Jason and flees to Athens HUMA 1100 o Medea marries Aegeus, King of Athens. Medea tries to murder Aegus’s son. She flees o Jason either commits suicide or dies when a piece of the Argo falls on his head. (445-575) o Euripides’ fundamental psychological insight is that victims of an intense emotional wound (Medea) not only turn against those who inflict it (Jason) but against their entire world of emotional attachments o The immediate context of this conversation is that Jason and Medea are having an argument. She is deeply wounded by the reality that he left her for a young Greek woman (Glauce), and is accusing and insulting his character. At this point, they are both determining who made greater sacrifices. It is almost an argument that entails a completion regarding who received more benefits and was more giving. Medea just finished naming all the sacrificial acts she carried out, such as helping Jason in getting the Golden Fleece, and this is Jason’s response to her. o Jason is speaking, and his character is revealed. Firstly he is proud of being Greek and having a Greek heritage. Secondly, he is arrogant, believing that he did Medea an enormous favor by bringing her to Greece and saving her from her “barbaric ways”. Because of that, he believes that he should be credited and thanked for rescuing her. Thirdly, he is certain that he made the best decisions and has o regrets, providing justifications for his decision making process by claiming that it is in Medea’s and the children’s best interest o He appears to have lost all types of emotional connection to Medea; since he simply cannot understand and is unaware of the humiliation she is experiencing after being left for a younger Greek woman. He actually appears entirely oblivious and unconcerned about Medea’s feelings. Lastly, he is self-centered, and actually does everything that is in his best interest. By marrying the princess, he is in fact benefiting himself; he cares inly about his reputation and glory. o Several relevant issues and themes arise. The first one, for example, is the concept of Greeks versus the Barbarians. The Greeks prided themselves on being civilized, rational, and calm individuals that was always a start contrast with the primitive, uncivilized Barbarians, touching upon the concept of nomos versus physis. Here Jason represents the rule of law, nomos, and is permitted to divorce Medea in order to keep his family life in tact according to legal (not moral) merit. Medea represents physis, by being a woman who is cornered and desperate. Consequently, she represents the irrational and primitive side, epitomizing a natural force. HUMA 1100 Lecture - Oct 5 Sophocles’ Oedipus the King I. Sophocles’ world (496-405) II. Narrative structure: parricide and incest III. The ancient Theban myth of the son who unknowingly kills his father and marries his mother IV. The riddle and the slaying of the sphinx V. Oedipus’ pollution and complex VI. Psychoanalytic period based on the work of Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud (1865- 1939) VII. Chief motifs:  Fate (moira) as a personification of character – structure  The prophets  Exposure of a child to avoid the prophecy’s fulfillment  Abandonment  Shepard rescues abandoned child  Mother-son incest Stage one: Laius and Jocasta, the king and queen of Thebes are told by the oracle at Delphi that their child will kill his father and marry his mother. Stage two: They decide to kill the child by exposing it, which is by leaving it outside to die. The exposure of children was actually practiced in the ancient world, so this element of the story is not fantastic in terms of the history and culture of the time. Stage three: The herdsman to whom they delegate this task does not follow orders, but gives the child to another herdsman, from another city. The child is raised by the king and queen of Corinth, and he thinks that they are his real parents. Stage four: This child is told by the oracle of Delphi that he will kill his father and marry his mother. He thinks that the oracle means the king and queen of Corinth, since he thinks that these are his real parents. He is horrified and leaves Corinth. Stage five: on his journey, at the meeting of three roads, he comes across an arrogant man in a chariot, who will not let him by. The man hits him, so he kills the man Stage six: he comes to Thebes, which is being harassed by the Sphinx. He solves the riddle of the sphinx. He solves the riddle of the sphinx and in return made king; he marries the wife of the former king, and they have several children HUMA 1100 1. Prologues 1-150 The people, speaking through a priest, ask Oedipus’ help in relieving the plague, which is afflicting the city. Oedipus has already taken steps to help including sending Creon to Delphi to ask Apollo’s advice. Creon returns and reports that Apollo has commanded that the Thebeans be expel pollution from their land: the murderer of the former king Laius Oedipus pledges to find the murderer and expel him 2. Pradpes: 151-215 The chorus calls on Apollo, Athena, and Artemis to help, and describes the horrors of the plague 3. First Episode: 216-461 Oedipus proclaims measures to find the murderer, and calls down curses on him and whoever tries to hide him, the chorus advises Oedipus on him and whoever trues to hide him. The chorus advises Oedipus to consult with the seer Tiresias. Tiresias is unwilling to identify the murderer, and Oedipus angered accuses him of having helped in the murder of Laius. Tiresias then accuses Oedipus of being the murderer 4. First Stasimon: 462-512 The chorus dances and sings about the life of the murderer of Laius 5. Second episode: 513-633 Creon accuses him of plotting to overthrow him 6. First kommos (emotional song of sorrow): 634-696 Jocasta enters, asks what the quarrel is about, and tries to stop the dispute. The chorus and Oedipus sing a brief kommos, or emotionally charged song (lines 649- 667), followed shortly by a kommos sung by Jocasta and the chorus (lines 679-696) 7. Third episode: 697 – 863 Jocasta tells Oedipus about the events surrounding Laius’ murder. Oedipus relates how he had murdered a stranger on a road 8. Third Stasimon: 863-910 The chorus sings about the importance of divine laws, the dangers of impiously ignoring them, and prays that the impious be punished 9. Fourth episode: Oedipus’ father plynus is dead and Oedipus has ben elected king of Corinth. Oedipus ecpress that his father has suffered natural death 10. Fourth Stasimon 1087-1109 The chorus speculates on who Oedipus’ parents are. A mountain nymph and pan? Some other divinities? 11. Fifth episode: 1110-1185 A herdsman arrives, and reveals to Oedipus that he is the son of Jocasta and Laius. He was to be abandoned on the mountain, but was saved by the herdsman and given to another herdsman and given to another herdsman who worked for King ploybus of Corinth HUMA 1100 12. Fifth Stasimon: 1186-1223 The chorus songs of how Oedipus’ fall and wretched state is representative of all human life. 13. Sixth episode: 1224-1297 A second messenger reports that Jocasta has hung herself and Oedipus took out his eyes Oedipus complex is a Freudian theory  Sigmund Freud, Austrian doctor and appointed professor at the university of Vienna, was the founder of Psychoanalytic theory  He developed a theory about a particular emotional disorder or diseases known as the Oedipus complex  According to Freud. Sophocles’ play illustrates formative stage in each individual’s psychosexual development, when the child transfers his love object from the breast (oral phrase) to the mother. At this time, the child desires the mother and resents (even secretly desires the murder) of the father.  Such primal desires are quickly repressed, but they will arise again in dreams or literature  Freud had found the same complex in individuals who did not have emotional problems, and thus argued that the Oedipus complex is universal  Freud thought the Oedipus complex is the “nuclear complex of the neuroses” and that “the key to mental health or illness lay largely in the successful or unsuccessful resolution of the complex” (Freud, 1924) HUMA 1100 Lecture - Oct 12 Aeschylus’ Agamemnon Overview A. Aeschylus world 525? - 456 B.C.E B. Tragedy C. The historical background of tragedy D. The structure of tragedy E. The structure of Agamemnon F. Important characters G. Dike (greet: “justice, vengeance) H. Interesting imagery and analysis I. Discussion A. Aeschylus world 525? -456 B.C.E  Born ca. 525 in Eleusis, near Athens died in 456 B.C.E in Sicily  Referred to as the father of Greek tragedy  First of Athens’ three great tragedians: Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides  Lived in the most glorious era of Athenian history  Proud of Athens, the achievements of the city (polis)  He fought successfully against Persians at marathon in 490 B.C.E and at salamis in 480 B.C.E  He wrote approximately ninety plays but only seven survived  His tragedies were presented as trilogies  He was the first Greek dramatist to introduce a second actor  Agamemnon won first prize in 458 B.C.E on Acropolis in the theater of Dionysus  Agamemnon is the first part of the tribology known as “the Oresteia”, which is the only surviving Greek tribology. The other two parts are The Libation Bearers and the Eumenides (Furies)  The three plays examine the causes and consequences of Agamemnon’s murder by his wife Clytemnestra and the unbearable dilemma focusing their son Orestes who is compelled to kill his own mother in order to avenge his father’s death. Orestes epitomizes the idea of a perfect son  These plays are connected with very simple action and complicated messages 1. The return and murder of Agamemnon and his concubine Cassandra 2. The revenge of Orestes: the killing of his mother Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus 3. Justice: dike 4. Decoding images and symbols  The chorus is a rich repository of traditional wisdom and religious insight. The principle theme remains that wisdom is obtained only through suffering. And that the integrity of the supreme god Zeus ensures that universal moral order will ultimately prevail  Aetiological myth (in Greek aitis means “the cause”/”reason”)  The Agamemnon chorus is composed of Argive citizens who are passive onlookers HUMA 1100 B. Tragedy  A dramatic genre that presents the heroic or moral struggle of an individual, culminating in his or her ultimate defeat  A type of tragic play that surfaces mainly in a society of a fixed hierarchy of political and/or religious beliefs  Aristotle (384-322 B.C) in his poetics determines mimesis, catharsis, hamartia C. Historical Background  Agamemnon is based on a historical event and is generally considered one of the greatest and most challenging works of the western literary tradition  Its historical backdrop of the Trojan war, the famous 10-year war waged by the Greeks against the Trojans in the city of troy (todays Turkey)  Homers epic lliad recounts the events in detail  This tragedy tells Agamemnon’s victorious return from Troy  The tragedies of the play occur as a result of the crimes committed by Agamemnon’s family: o His father Atreus boiled the children of his own brother Thyestes, and served them to him o Clytemnestra’s lover, Aegisthus (Thyestes only surviving son) seeks revenge for that crime o Agamemnon scarifies his daughter, Iphigenia, to gain a favorable wind to Troy o History and heritage are major themes of the entire play and tribology, since Agamemnon’s family cannot escape the cursed cycle of bloodshed propagated by its past D. The structure of tragedy  Classical tragedies had a certain structural framework that they had tot follow although there were slight variations in some plays E. The structure of Agamemnon  Prologs: watchman (1-39)  Parodos: chorus of old Theban man (40-263) o Clytemnestra enters (82)  Epeisodion: Clytemnestra & chorus (264-354)  Stasimon: chorus sings and dances 9355-502)  Midpoint: Clytemnestra & Agamemnon (855-974)  Chorus & Cassandra (1069-1330) o Cassandra enters house  Stasimon (1331-1371) o Agamemnon in the house (1343-1345)  Epeisodion: Clytemnestra & chorus (1372-1345)  Aegisthus’ justification for murder (577-1611) HUMA 1100 F. Important characters  The two principal characters of the play are Agamemnon and Clytemnestra  Agamemnon: o The king of Argos, the husband of Clytemnestra and the commander of the Greek armies during the fall of Troy  Clytemnestra: o Queen of Argos, his wife G. Dike (Greek: justice, vengeance)  Clytemnestra uses the word dike to refer to the opportunity for justice and vengeance to be carried out on her daughter Iphigenia’s behalf as well as her own  The murder  According to the chorus, the gods are the guardians of dike, meaning of justice or revenge H. Interesting imagery and analysis  The play is full of imagery and symbolic language o The beacon: at the beginning of the play. The watchman sees the beacon which announces that the Trojan war is over and that the Greeks have won o The shrill cry: according to the chorus, Agamemnon and his brother Menelaus made a shrill cry when they left for Troy, which was a war cry that could be paralleled to the cry of eagles flying above a nest  The cry of the eagles: the eagles usually cry above the nest because they have lost their babies  The fury: was sent to punish the predator. It is interesting to note that Paris is being compared to the predator who ate the baby birds  Eagles: two eagles fly and kill a pregnant hare. The hare can be said to represent Troy and its unborn young are the innocent in Troy who were killed by the Greeks HUMA 1100 Lecture - Oct 19 Hesiod’s Theogon/works and days Overview of lecture  Stories about Hesiod and the muses  Overview of the Theogony  Different ways of looking at the Theogony  Links between the Theogony and works and days  Outline of works and days What we know about Hesiod  His name means ”he who produces a voice”  His father, a merchant, lost his fortune and migrated from Asia Minor to Boeotia in northern Greece  He had a brother called Perses  Hesiod was a shepherd until one day on Mount Hellikon, he encountered the muses who breathed poetry to him  After his death, his body was retrieved by dolphins  Hesiod and his brother Perses may be fictional characters that facilitate the presentation of the materials contained in Theogony and works and days  The poems cannot be exactly dated but internal evidence suggests they were written sometime between 750 and 650 B.C.E.  The poems dated from the beginnings of classical Greek culture (The archaic period) and are a valuable source of information about the life and culture of this time. The Theogony: Gr. Theon Genos = succession of gods  Prologue, I. -1115: Invocation to the muses and Zeus. Outline of the poem.  First gods and their offspring: I. 116-338  Second generation of gods; rise of Zeus to power: I. 339-885  Story of the second generation includes” (i) hymn to Hekate (I.413-455) and (ii) the story of Prometheus and Pandora (I.509-620).  Third generation (Olympian gods) and their offspring: i.886-969  Goddesses who married mortals: i.970-1028  Transition to the catalogue of women The Muses: Daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne(Memory)  Thalia: Comedy  Euterpe: Flute  Clio: History HUMA 1100  Melpomene: Tragedy  Terpsichore: light verse and dance  Erato: lyric poetry and hymns  Ployhymnia: Mime  Ouranua: Astronomy  Calliope: Epic poetry The Theogony describes the Victory of Zeus  It is the progress rom chaos to order.  Ouranos & Gaia mated & produced Titans; Cronos castrated his father Ouranos  Shows change from matrilineal to patriarchal succession  Shows how Zeus orders the world by giving the god privileges and rights and giving justice (dike) to men The structure of Hesiod’s Theogony: 1-115: Hymn to Muses 116-122: Choas, Gaia, Tartarus, Eros 123- 153: The first group, children of Choas and children of Gaia 154-210: the castration of Ouranos by Kronos 211-239: The second group, children of Night and children of Pontos 240-885: the third group 413:452: Hekate 460-508: Deceit of Kronos, birth of Zeus 512-620: Prometheus and the origin of women 621-825: Struggles for power between Kronos and Zeus 826-885: Typhoeus; Zeus is chosen king of Gods 886-1022: The fourth group 886-929: Zeus’ marriages to goddesses; birth of Athena 930-962: Other divine marriages and children 963-1018: Unions of goddess and mortal men HUMA 1100 Different perspective on The Theogony  Anthropological  Psychological  Phenomenological Outline of works and days 1. a) Prologue b) Description of strife (Eris). c) Myth of Pandora; the five ages d) Fable of hawk and nightingale e) Praise of justice 9dike) (I. 1-425 2. How to escape poverty hard work (I. 426-769) 3. Wise sayings 9I. 770-844) 4. List of lucky and unlucky days (I. 845-928) Some facts about Genesis  First book of the Torah (“laws”)  Gives background to exodus from Egypt by the Israelites and why God gave them a collection of laws  The Pentateuch features the pre-history of Israel  Comprises first five books of the bible: Genesis, exodus, Leviticus, numbers, Deuteronomy  The stories in Genesis come from a variety of sources and time periods Gen 1:1 – 2.4a Gen 2:4b-3.24 Name: Elohim (God) LORD God (Yahweh Elohim) View Majestic creation by word Anthropomorphic Structure 6 days working, one day rest Loose, a narrative, tensions, no balance, no careful symmetry Creation From watery chaos (formless void with Dry desert (2:5) watered by a darkness) stream Order Light, heaven, earth, vegetation, sun Earth, water, humans, ,moon, stars, sea creatures, birds, land,vegation, animal life (man and animals, humanity male and female woman sperately first male together) adam and then female eve HUMA 1100 Lecture – Oct 26 In his book Prinicipi di una scienza nuova (1725), the Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico from Napoli claims that he believes the Homers epic poems are the first historical document about life and customs of Ancient Greece, but that Homer is not the only author of the epics. Homer According to Greek tradition Homer was form somewhere in Ionia (western Turkey). Although much is not known about Homer as an individual, it is believed that he was trained in his craft, married with children, and blind (perhaps in old age). There are a few biographies written about Homer, including various legend about his poetic genius. Many cities considered him their citizens: Smyrna, Rodos, Chios, Kolophon, Ithake, Pylson Argos, Athenai, (Anthologia, Palatina 16, 298). The Homeric Hymn to Demeter The Homeric Hymn to Demeter is an etiological myth, which tells the story of the abduction of Persephone by Hades, the god of the underworld. It reveals the grief and struggle of Demeter to win her daughter back. The hymn is used to explain why the seasons change, and is the basis for the Eleusinian Mysteries, a secret religious cult. Eleusis lies about 25 km outside the city of Athens. Every year pilgrims came from the parts of Greece to visit the shrine of Demeter, the mother goddess of the earth and agriculture. The story tells how the participants walked in the procession from Athen to Eleusis, helping Demeter’s search for her daughter Persephone. They fasted while walking in the procession, and at Eleusis they drank a special barley drink, in memory of the kindness of a local woman who caused the goddess to smile and take a drink. The participants believed that their devotion will provide them with a happier existence in the afterlife. In the opening part of the hymn the reader is told how Persephone became the wife of Hades, through a surprise abduction where he carried her off unwillingly. In this hymn, the reader is presented with a situational or conditional metamorphosis. From internet: Demeter and the Eleusinian Mysteries The lengthy Homeric Hymn to Demeter (2) provides the most important and complete information about DEMETER [de-mee'ter] (CERES) and PERSEPHONE [per-sef'o-nee] (PROSERPINA), daughter of Zeus and Demeter, and is in itself a literary gem. The Abduction of Persephone. Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, was also called KORE [ko'ree], "girl" or "maiden." While she was picking beautiful flowers with the daughters of Ocean, Earth, at the will of Zeus and to please Hades, produced a most wondrous and radiant narcissus. As Persephone reached out to pluck the flower, Earth yawned open, and Hades appeared in his golden chariot and carried her away in tears. HUMA 1100 Persephone shouted and called out to Zeus but he did not hear her for it was by his will that HADES [hay'deez] (PLUTO), his brother and her uncle, carried her off to be his wife and queen of the Underworld. Demeter's Grief and Anger. Demeter heard her daughter's screams and frantically rushed in pursuit. For nine days she did not eat ambrosia or drink nectar, nor did she bathe but roamed the earth, disconsolate and holding burning torches in her hands. Hecate, who had heard Persephone's screams, could not tell Demeter who has carried her off. On the tenth day, the sun-god Helius, who had seen everything, explained to Demeter what had happened. He added that Demeter should not lament. Her brother Hades would make a fine husband for her daughter since he was a great god, who when divine power was first divided three ways was made king of the Underworld. Now that she knew the truth, Demeter's grief was intensified and a great anger rose up in her heart against Zeus because he had willed the rape of her daughter. She avoided the gods on Olympus and, disguising her beautiful appearance, wandered among mortals. Demeter Comes to Eleusis. She came to ELEUSIS [e-lou'sis] and, grieving, sat in the shade beside the Maiden Well. She looked like a very old woman who might be a housekeeper or a children's nurse. The four daughters of CELEUS [see'le-us] or KELEUS, the king of Eleusis, and METANEIRA [me-ta-neye'ra], his wife, saw her there when they came to draw water and questioned her. Demeter answered that she would tell them the truth, but instead invented a life for her human identity. Her name is DOSO [doh'soh], and she was carried off from Crete by pirates, from whom she escaped when they disembarked. She does not know where she has come to in her travels, but she hopes that the maidens will help her find work as a housekeeper or a nurse. Callidice, the most beautiful of the daughters of Celeus, suggested that the old woman remain at the well until they return home to ask their mother if they might come back to fetch her. Demeter Arrives at the Home of Celeus and Metaneira. When the young women returned home and told their mother Metaneira all about Doso, she directed them to return quickly and hire the woman at any price. For she cherished an only son, long prayed for, who needed care. So they brought the goddess to their house, grieving, with her head veiled and wearing a dark robe. As the goddess stood in the threshold her head reached up to the beams, and she filled the doorway with a divine radiance. Metaneira, overcome by awe, asked her guest to be seated. Demeter refused to sit on the splendid couch offered but instead waited until a servant IAMBE [eye-am'bee] brought her an artfully made chair and threw a fleece over it. Then Demeter sat down, holding her veil over her face, silent and serious, tasting no food or drink and overcome by longing for her daughter. Iambe, however, with jests and jokes (doubtlessly in iambic meter) caused the holy lady to smile and laugh. She refused the red wine that Metaneira offered but instead ordered Metaneira to mix meal, water, and mint for her. The great lady Demeter accepted the drink for the sake of the holy rite, i.e. to initiate and observe the holy rite or sacrament. This drink (the kykeon) very likely represented a kind of communion. HUMA 1100 Demeter Nurses Demophoon. Metaneira promised Demeter great rewards if she would nurse her child DEMOPHOON [de-mof'oh-on], or DEMOPHON, and bring him up. Demeter took the child to her bosom, promising that he would not be harmed by evil charms. She nourished him on ambrosia, and she breathed sweetness upon him, and he grew like a god. At night, she hid him in the fire, without the knowledge of his parents, who were amazed how their child grew and flourished. Demeter would have made Demophoon immortal, if foolish Metaneira had not spied upon her and cried out in terror because this stranger was burying her son within the blazing fire. Demeter Reveals her Divinity. Demeter was enraged at the stupidity of Metaneira, who by her interference had ruined Demeter's plan to make the boy immortal. Nevertheless, Demeter would still allow Demophoon to flourish as a mortal and grant him imperishable honor because he had slept in her arms. Then Demeter proclaimed, "I am Demeter, esteemed and honored as the greatest benefit and joy to mortals and immortals," and gave her instructions for the future of Eleusis. She cast off her old age and transformed her size and appearance. Fragrant beauty and a divine radiance breathed around her and her golden hair flowed down on her shoulders. The house was filled with her brilliance as though with a lightning flash. She disappeared and Metaneira was overcome by astonishment and fear. Demeter's Instructions. Before her disappearance, Demeter had ordered that the people of Eleusis build for her a great temple and an altar below the town on the rising hill above the well Kallichoron; she promised to teach them her rites so that by performing them with reverence they might propitiate her heart. King Celeus saw to it that Demeter's will was accomplished. Demeter's Determined Grief. Demeter, still wasted with longing for her daughter, caused for mortals a most devastating year with no harvest. The earth would not send up a single sprout. She would not only have destroyed the entire human race with cruel famine but would also have deprived the Olympian gods of their glorious prestige from gifts and sacrifices. Zeus finally took notice. He sent Iris to Demeter in her temple at Eleusis with his command that she rejoin the company of the gods. Demeter refused to obey. So Zeus sent down all the immortal gods, who approached Demeter one by one, offering any gifts or honors that she might choose. Demeter stubbornly insisted that she would never set foot on Olympus until she with her own eyes saw her daughter again. Zeus' Orders to Hades. Thus Zeus was forced to send Hermes down to explain to Hades all that Demeter had said and done; Hermes also delivered the command that Persephone must return with him out of the Underworld so that her mother might see her and desist from her wrath. Hades smiled grimly and immediately obeyed Zeus the king. He ordered Persephone to return with a loving heart to her mother; but he also told her that he was not an unworthy husband for her, since he was the full brother of her father Zeus and that while she was with him she would rule as his queen, a great goddess. Those who did HUMA 1100 not propitiate her power by performing holy rites and sacrifices would find eternal retribution. Persephone Eats of the Pomegranate. Joyous Persephone jumped up quickly. But (according to the poet of the Hymn) Hades secretly gave his wife the fruit of the pomegranate to eat to insure the fulfillment of his words to her as her husband; she should not remain the whole year above with her mother Demeter but would rule with him below for part of the time. He then yoked his immortal horses to his golden chariot, which Persephone mounted. Hermes took the reins, and in no time at all they came to a halt in front of the temple where Demeter waited. Demeter's Ecstatic Reunion with her Daughter. At the sight of her daughter, Demeter rushed out of the temple with the passion of a maenad, and Persephone leaped down from the chariot and ran to meet her mother, throwing her arms around her neck. Immediately Demeter sensed some treachery and asked if Persephone had eaten any food in the Underworld. If she had not, she would live with her father Zeus and mother Demeter above, but if she had eaten anything, she would live a third part of the year in the Underworld and the other two thirds in the upper world. With the burgeoning spring she would wondrously rise again from the gloomy region below. Demeter ended by asking by what trick Hades has deceived her. Persephone said that she would tell the truth. According to her version (contradicting the description of Hades' secret deception given above), when she jumped up at the news of her return, Hades swiftly put into her mouth the fruit of the pomegranate and compelled her to eat it by force, against her will. Then Persephone painfully described how Hades carried her off, despite her screams. Their mutual grief was soothed by their loving and tender embraces. Hecate arrived and affectionately shared their joy. From that time on she became one of Persephone's attendants. Demeter Restores Fertility to the Earth. Zeus sent Rhea to lead Demeter back among the gods with the following message. He promised to grant Demeter the honors among the immortals that she would choose, and he consented that her daughter live a third part of the year below and the other two thirds above, with her mother and the other gods. Rhea swiftly rushed down and delivered Zeus' pronouncements and encouraged Demeter to comply, first by restoring the earth's fertility for mortals. Demeter obeyed. She miraculously caused fruit to spring up from the fertile earth that had previously been barren, and the whole land blossomed with flowers. Demeter Establishes her Eleusinian Mysteries. Then Demeter went to the leaders of the people of Eleusis and showed them how to perform her sacred rites and taught them her holy mysteries, which no one is allowed in any way to violate, question, or reveal. After she had ordained these things, Demeter and Persephone returned to Olympus. The two HUMA 1100 goddesses send to their beloved mortals PLUTUS [plou'tus], or PLOUTOS, a god of agricultural plenty, prosperity, and wealth (not to be confused with Pluto, i.e. Hades). The following words from the Homeric Hymn promise happiness both in this life and in the next for those who are initiated into Demeter's ELEUSINIAN [e-lou-sin'i-an] MYSTERIES: Happy is the one of mortals on earth who has seen these things. But those who are uninitiated into the holy rites and have no part never are destined to a similar joy when they are dead in the gloomy realm below. Triptolemus. TRIPTOLEMUS [trip-tol'e-mus], or TRIPTOLEMOS is only mentioned in the Hymn, but elsewhere he is made the messenger of Demeter, traveling to teach her agricultural arts in a magical car drawn by winged dragons. He and Demophoon are sometimes confused. THE ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES Eleusis is about fourteen miles west of Athens and the Eleusinian mysteries were closely linked to the religion and politics of Athens itself. There were two major stages to the rituals. The Lesser Mysteries. Precise details about this first stage celebrated in Athens each year in the early spring are virtually unknown. Ceremonies probably focused upon initial purification. The Greater Mysteries. These were held annually during the months of September and October. A holy truce was declared to issue invitations to individuals and states. The ceremonies included: Splendid processions between Eleusis and Athens in which the Hiera ("holy objects") were carried in sacred chests by priests and priestesses. Sacrifices, prayers, and cleansing in the sea. The singing of hymns, the exchange of jests, and the carrying of torches. Fasting, a vigil, and the drinking of the sacred drink, the kykeon. The ultimate mysteries of Eleusis were expressed visually and orally, and their unwritten secrets have been kept, apparently forever. The heart of the mysteries involved a dramatic performance of some sort, perhaps enacting episodes from the Hymn (e.g., the sufferings and joys of Demeter and her miracles) or presenting a vision of the Afterlife to evoke a religious catharsis. HUMA 1100 The revelation of the Hiera, "sacred objects," (which we cannot identify) was made by a high priest, the Hierophant ("he who reveals the Hiera"), while bathed in mystic light, and he uttered words, the significance of which we do not know. Of the m
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