BOOKS 1-12 ODYSSEY ON THE TEST (110 minutes to write the test)
Quotations: which text it’s from, speaker, and what are the key ideas of the passage.
Short Essay: A formal essay, a short intro, regular body, conclusion. It needs a thesis. 40% of
Plan your time.
First Tuesday of December is a study day
• Odysseus takes the role of a story teller.
• A series of flashbacks takes place here.
• It opens with Odysseus revealing his identity to the Phaiakians; he is the on of Laertes,
comes from Ithaka, etc.
• Odysseus reveals his identity reveals his identity when he thinks he is in apposition of
safety, and keeps his identity a secret when he is scared
• Odysseus starts by revealing his identity to the Phaiakians, and keeping his identity
secret to the Cyclopes
• Ismaros by the Kikonians, The Lotus eaters, The Cyclopes,
• When Odysseus leaves the land of Troy,
• Line 44: Odysseus urged his men to escape, but they do not listen to him.
• Who is at fault for the loss of Odysseus’ men? There are time when Odysseus leads his
men into danger, 6 from each ship are killed
• The current takes them then to land of the lotus eaters after the Kikonian land.
• Lotus here can be seen as opium, everyone losses their memory of homecoming and
wants to just sit around and eat lotus, this is a narcotic affect.
• Odysseus finally forces them back into the ships after that episode
• The Cyclopes are not as civilized as humans.
• When Odysseus arrives at the land of the Cyclopes, he realizes the Cyclopes do not
have the means to build ships, he is saying how humans are more civilized than the
Cyclopes species • Line 105: Cyclopes are lawless; they don’t have the capacity to build ships, no
institutions, no counsel, selfish, no government, etc.
• Odysseus continues to draw contrasts with humans and Cyclopes
• There is no culture on this island, but there are many goats
• Odysseus describes the island as one can cultivate this island and make it prosper
• Odysseus and his men sleep on the beach, and the next day the feast on the wild goats,
and drink the sweet wine from their ships
• Odysseus the next day goes to the Cyclopes Island with 12 men.
• It is common to mix strong wine with water, this sweet wine is usually mixed with 20
• He gives the Cyclopes this wine without water
• Odysseus and his men wait in the cave until the Cyclopes returns
• When Polythemus, The Cyclopes, enters, he closes the stone door of the cave, this
Cyclopes is massive
• The Cyclopes sees the men when he is making his fire and questions them whether they
are pirates, etc.
• Odysseus says how they are Achians and asks them for a gift of hospitality.
• The Cyclopes responds by saying he doesn’t care about Zeus and his patron of
• Cyclopes then takes two of Odysseus’ men and splatters their brains on the ground and
proceeds to eat his guests, which goes against hospitality.
• When Cyclopes falls asleep, Odysseus considers stabbing him, but then realizes how he
needs the Cyclopes alive to move the stone from the wall.
• Cyclopes the next day follows his routines, kills 2 more of his men, and then odysseus
gives him wine
• Cyclopes then asks Odysseus for more wine and Odysseus’ name
• Cycles then says he will give a gift of hospitality
• Odysseus then says his name is nobody • The name for Nobody is Udeis. This name can sound a lot like Odysseus. There is a
play on words here.
• By using Udeis rather than Odysseus as his name, you see his cunning side here
• On the other hand, Odysseus is denying his own identity
• Odysseus had reminded Polythemus of the hospitality gift, and Cyclopes responds by
saying his gift will be by eating Nobody last
• Polythemus is not being very genuine in the rules of hospitality
• Polythemus eventually passes out due to the drunkenness from the wine, Odysseus
then plots a way to get out of the cave.
• He heats up a wooden stake and stabs his eye.