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Department
Humanities
Course
HUMA 1105
Professor
Donald A Burke
Semester
Fall

Description
January 21 , Essay on the Odyssey Book 13 Odysseus finally reaches Ithaka after 20 years since his departure Themes prevalent in the book: 1) Homecoming (Nostos) 2)Identity or the nature of his concealed identity (he conceals his identity a lot and conceals it slowly 3) Hospitality; prevalent among many of Homer’s works (which figures are good hosts, and which aren’t) Book 3 is broken into 4 sections 1) Farewell to the Achaians • Phaiakians are spellbound and stricken to silence after Odysseus tells them of his adventures • His role of story teller is not over • Phaiakians laughter an ox and prepare a feast for Odysseus before he boards the ship to go home • Phaiakians provide Nostos helpings for all strangers that come to their land 2) Journey and arrival to Ithaka • Odysseus sleeps on board while they travel to Ithaka • The divine portal (harbour) • Bottom of Page 200: olive tree which is on shore. Phaiakians leave Odysseus gifts by this tree. This olive tree symbolizes the state where Odysseus has finally achieved his Nostos. This tree also marks significant stages in Odysseus’ life. Every time there is a reference to an olive tree, this signifies a turning point in Odysseus’ life. • The wrath of Poseidon 3) Important dialogue between Zeus and Poseidon • Zeus knows about Odysseus destiny • Poseidon is delaying his Nostos because Odysseus blinded Cyclopes • Even though Poseidon knows Odysseus will eventually return home, he wants him to suffer and return in someone else’s boat • Poseidon initially wants to convey Odysseus’ ship to stone and cover Phaikia behind a mountain • By the Phaiakians helping them, they are indirectly making Poseidon mad • Alkinois recalls a prophecy; if we are to assist Odysseus home, their city will be behind a mountain and the ship will be turned to stone • In turn he offers sacrifices so at least there will be no mountain hiding their country. • Phaiakians also decide to not assist strangers anymore after Odysseus 4) Athena conceals her identity from Odysseus in the end of book 13, though they eventually reveal their identities to each other and she has a whole plan for him to overthrow the suitors • Odysseus wake up at Ithaka and he doesn’t recognize his own land • Athena makes Odysseus appear older balder, shorter, etc. • Athena’s intervention: disguises Odysseus and Ithaka from Odysseus • The reader knows more about Odysseus than Odysseus himself • Athena comes down to the beach as a shepherd boy • When she as a shepherd boy sees Odysseus, Odysseus lies about his identity • He says how he is from Crete and he is on the run for having killed a man; the son of Idomeneus • Odysseus and Athena are both tricksters, they both deliberately dec
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