• There are elements of foreshadowing throughout the last 6 books. Literary devices used
to Forshaw include similes and metaphors.
• Telemachos has been in Sparta since book 4. Athena travels to retrieve him.
• Athena tells him Telemachos that there has been someone chosen for her mother to
• Athena warns Telemachos about the ambush that is awaiting him by some of the leading
suitors, so she offers an alternative route.
• Athena is a very essential in this book, she offers him various instructions throughout the
book. She tells him to go to Eumaios and send a message through him to tell Penelope
that he has returned to Ithaka.
• In Sparta, Telemachos asks Menelaos to send him home, and he does.
• 68-70: do not detain a guest longer than he wishes.
• Menelaos eventually grants Telemachos the favour to leave and gives him many gifts of
• Telemachos traveled to Sparta from Pylos and traveled with Nestor’s son Peisistratos.
• 165: The eagle is a simile. Helen interprets this omen. This is an element of
foreshadowing. She says Odysseus is either on his way home or is already home and
plotting his revenge.
• Telemachos and Peisistratos then return to Pylos and spend a night along that way.
• Telemachos asks Peisistratos to bring him straight to the ships because Nestor will
detain him with his long stories, and he wants to return home fast.
• Telemachos assembles his crew and gets ready to leave Pylos.
• He is an interpreter of omens and he is a fugitive of his country. (Theoklymenos)
• When Theoklymenos wife’s story appears, it is in Homer’s voice.
• Single quotation marks is the speaker speaking, not the poet. If it is double quotation
marks, it is the speaker quoting another speaker.
• Between books 15 & 16, there are many scene changes between Telemachos and
Odysseus • 301: Scene change back to Odysseus. Eumaios talks about his autobiography. Eumaois
takes on the role of story teller in this part of the book.
• Eumaois was purchased by Laertes after having been abducted by Pheonician pirates.
• Eumaois is not aware at this point of whether he is talking to Odysseus or not, he thinks
he’s just a regular guy.
• Eumaois’ story does not advance the plot. Pages 235-237 consist of Eumaois’
autobiography. This is an example of shifting narrators.
• Scene change again back to Telemachos. Telemachos tells Theoklymenos that since
Ithaka is run by suitors; he would have taken him home if it were another way.
• Telemachos tells Theoklymenos to go see the leading suitor.
• Page 238-239. Line 525-534: this passage functions as foreshadowing. Odysseus and
Telemachos will be successful will be successful in defeating the suitors.
• Theoklymenos & Telemachos part ways in the end of book 15.
• Contains the first of several recognition scenes.
• It combines 2 different narratives: the narrative of Odysseus & Telemachos.
• Telemachos and Odysseus will finally be reunited.
• Telemachos approaches Eumaois’ hut when Odysseus is still with him.
• Eumaois still believes Odysseus is a Cretan wanderer.