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Lecture 39.docx

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York University
HUMA 1105
Donald A Burke

From Ancient Greece to Rome Roman gods and goddesses and their equivalents in Greek mythology Roman God/Goddess (Latin) Roman God/Goddess (English) Greek Equivalent • Roman gods and goddesses are generally not as anthropomorphic as their Greek counterparts • Roman gods originally more associated with cult then with myth • Many roman legends are adaptions of Greek legends • Virgin (Vergil) and Ovid • Many of the Roman myths centre on the founding of Rome • Italy was populated by the Etruscans and the Sabines before the mythic arrival of Aeneas • Roman mythology frequently equates earlier Italian gods with Greek gods The Italian Gods Janus Presides over beginnnings (January), crossings, and bridges, god of going in and coming out, doors, entranceways, and archways On coinds he is portrayed with two faces – as a god of entrances and exits he could look both before and behind Mars Originally an agricultural deity and more important Jupiter Italian sky god Juno Chiefi talian goddess of women Associated with marriage and childbirth (juno lucina) The festival of Juno Lacina, the matronalia, was celebrated in spring when all if nature was being renewed Became wife and sister of Jupiter under greek ufluence Minerva Italian fertility and war goddess Vesta Goddess of the hearth Vulcan Chief Italian fire god More important than his greek equivalent, hephaesthus God of destruce fire, though after his association with hepahtus he acquired creative attributes as well Cacus Fire god associated with Vulcan Agricultural and fertility divinities Saturn His festival, the saturnalia, was perhaps originally associated wth winter grain sowing Identified with the Greek Cronos Ceres Cult of veres went back to the ealriestd ays of the roman republic Temple didecated to ceres in 493 bce Identified with Demeter Diana Worshipped at aricia Identified with artemis, goddeso f the hunt and eceteÉÉÉ who si aassocited iwht the underworld Legends of the founding of rome Aeneas and Romulus Aeneas, the hero if Virgil`s Aenied, is the son of Aphrodite and anchises In the illiad Aeneas was an important Trojan warrior who met Achilles in combat, but was saved by Poseidon (book 20. 341-351) Poseidon rescues aeneas Aeneas and Romulus Àeneas left Troy some 475 years before the traditional date for the dfounding of Rome in 753 b.c. the gap between the two dates… `cato the elder calculated that there were 432…. Romulus and Remus Twin brother swho are the soons of mars and rhea silvia, also called ilia, daughter if… Howver, the servants pitied them and places them by the side of the river A she-wolf found the babies and suckled the,. Romulus arrived and told his grandfather of their rescue Romulus and remus th Morford, Mark P.O., Robert J. Lenardon, Michael Sham. Classical Mythology. 9 Ovid Metamorphoses Book 1 It was written during the reign of Augustus. Augustus was the founder of the roman empire. Julius ceasar was his uncle and was possibly adopted. The transition of rule from ceaser and augustus, he was known as Octavian before he became emporer. The roman senate had a big role in the ruling of the roman empire. Ovid had a conflict with Augustus. Augustus thought his work was a critique of his governing and was eventually sent to exile. Prior to writing this work, ovid was writing Dactylic Hexameter - Iamtic Pentameter - There is approximately 18 syllables in a line of epic poetry The first few lines of the prologue are written in pentameter He announces his theme first He starts off with the formings of the universe This epic poem is a lot more ambitious in a certain ways, it covers the entire creating of the universe Ovid is trying to outdue virgil, since his work was 12 boo
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