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HUMA 1110 (9)
Lecture

Mark and Matthew

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Department
Humanities
Course
HUMA 1110
Professor
Stephen Ford
Semester
Winter

Description
Early Christian Writings: Narratives (Mark): Jesus the Stranger: Misunderstood, Mysterious, Non-Torah Observant Teacher, and Riser from the Dead • Most consider mark the earliest Gospel, as it served as a source for Matthew and Luke • Author was unfamiliar with Judean geography and culture, and even Jewish scripture • Written for gentile Christians living somewhere in the Greek- speaking Mediterranean • Jews are outsiders • Jesus brings a new-teaching • (6:1-6) Jesus is rejected by his fellow Jews in different forms o He is in conflict with Jewish leaders o His own family thinks he’s crazy o His disciples don’t know, trust, or understand him • Mark presents conflicts between Jesus and Jews • Mark is a kind of Pauline interpretation of Jesus. Jesus represents something new. His coming marks the end of Jewish culture. It involves suffering of in the brief interim before his return. Dramatic Centre/Turning Point: “And Jesus went on with his disciples, to the villages of Caesare’a Philip’pi; and on the way he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that I am?" And they told him, "John the Baptist; and others say, Eli’jah; and others oneof the prophets." And he asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Messiah." And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him.” – (Mark, 8:27-30) Distinct to Mark “He was in the wilderness forty days, tempted by Satan; and he was with the beasts; and the angels waited on him.” – (Mark, 1:13) “They were all amazed, and they kept on asking one another, ‘What is this? A new teaching – with authority! He commands even the unclean, spirits and they obey him.’” – (Mark, 1:27) • Like Paul, this author presents Jesus as something new and distinct from Judaism “Then he said to them, ‘The Sabbath was made for humankind, and not humankind for the Sabbath.’” - (Mark, 2:27) • Another departure from Judaism www.notesolution.com “And his family when they had heard, went out to restrain [seize] him, for they said, ‘he has gone crazy’.” – Mark, 3:21 • Jesus’ own family thinks he’s crazy, once again Mark paints Jesus’ followers in a bad light “He also said, ‘The kingdom of God is as if someone would scatter seed on the ground, and would sleep and rise night and day, and the seed would sprout and grow, he does not know how. The earth produces of itself, first the stalk, then the head, then the full grain in the head. But when the grain is ripe, at once he goesin with his sickle, because the harvest has come.” – (Mark, 4:26- 29) • Parable of the seed growing secretly “…since it enters, not the heart but the stomach, and goesout into the sewer? (Thus he declared all foods clean.)” – (Mark, 7:19) • Jesus breaks with Jewish laws “He was teaching and saying, ‘Is it not written, My house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations? But you have made it a den for robbers.’” – (Mark, 11:17) • ‘all nations’ supports Mark’s gentile interests “A certain young man was following him, wearing nothing but a linen cloth. They caught hold of him, but he left the linen cloth and ran off naked.” – (Mark, 14:51) • This may be part of a secret gospel of Mark “They compelled a passer-by, who was coming in from the country, to carry his cross; it was Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus.” – (Mark, 15:21) • This is an odd mention…perhaps this story was told to the author of this gospel by Simon, Alexander, or Rufus “They had been saying to one another, ‘Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance to the tomb?’ When they looked up, they saw that the stone, which was very large, had already been rolled back. As they entered the tomb, they saw a young man, dressed in a white robe, sitting on the right side; and they were alarmed.” – (Mark, 16:3) THESIS: The second generation Christian community that produced this text, like Paul, rejected Torah-observance, an interpretation of Jesus that both Matthew and Luke reject, for they present Jesus as Torah-observant. www.notesolution.com Jesus the non Torah-observant Teacher “They were all amazed, and they kept on asking one another, ‘What is this? A new teaching – with authority! He commands even the unclean, spirits and they obey him.’” – (Mark, 1:27) • Like Paul, this author presents Jesus as something new and distinct from Judaism “Then he said to them, ‘The Sabbath was made for humankind, and not humankind for the Sabbath.’” - (Mark, 2:27) • Another departure from Judaism “…since it enters, not the heart but the stomach, and goesout into the sewer? (Thus he declared all foods clean.)” – (Mark, 7:19) • Jesus breaks with Jewish laws “Pray that it may not be in winter.” – (Mark, 13:18) • I’m unsure of the signifigance of this passage THESIS: The Markan community dissociates itself from the Jerusalem Christian community. (SeeGalatians) Mark Vs. Luke – The Trial of Jesus “Now the chief Priests and the whole council were looking for testimony against Jesus to put him to death; but they found none.” – (Mark, 14:55) • According to Jewish law, capital casescould not be tried at night…this took place during the evening “Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, ‘Why do we still need witnesses?” – (Mark, 14:63) • The High Priest was the one person, according to jewish law, who was not permitted to rip his clothes “As soon as it was morning, the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council. They bound Jesus, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate.” – (Mark, 15:1) • This is further proof that Mark believes that Jesus was tried and condemned to death at night… • According to Jewish law, this couldn’t be done “When day came, the assembly of the elders of the people, both chief priests and scribes, gathered together, and they brought him to their council.” – (Luke, 22:66) • Luke corrects Mark • Mark had the trial take place at night www.notesolution.com • Luke places the trial during the day, which is in accordance with Jewish law (Matthew): Early Christian Writings: Narratives • Matthew uses 92% of Mark, but revises much of it giving a strikingly different view of Jesus • Matthew postpones, until the ninth chapter, conflicts between Jews and Jesus as compared to Mark, which reveals the plot by Jews to murder Jesus almost immediately • Matthew’s Jesus is Torah-observant!!! • Matthew’s community is likely Gentile THESIS: The critical skill of redaction criticism is the correct tool for understanding the way in which Matthew transforms the anti-Jewish, anti- Torah observant Mark into an anti-Jewish, Torah observant text (Matthew) THESIS: Matthew is evidence for the existence of a Torah-observant early Christian community in the 80s (80-100), following the destruction of the temple in 70. Re
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