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HUMA 1160
Stanley Tweyman

9Huma 1160 Course kit (Regulae) 1-49 Muschetaion 1-33; 34-40; (*45-80) 101-104 My shirt is white regular statement In order to verify this stamen you must you your senses. This statement is empirical 1 +1=2 Descartes statement To verify something is to classify it as true and false 2 Categories The category of modality- it is mood  the confidence of the speaker that context of the connection the statement posses My shirt is white Shirt subject White Predicate of the statement( It is said about the subject)  1+1=2 1+1 subject 2 predicate 4 Modalities Possibility” might” *When it comes into the play Actuality” is” * The subject and predicate terms are separable from each other Necessity” what must be the case “ The subject and the predict are inseparable from each other Impossibility “will never be” Pos My shirt is white (this about the shirt) Act My shirt is white (think of different color) Neces My shirt is white (you can separate it) or 1+1=2( cannot separate the subject from the predicate) Temporality  (can change shirt for small time until it is finite) 1+1=2 (this is eternal) Necessary Truths My shirt is white –empirical works – you must to the eternal world to see if the claim is true 1+1=2 It may be true that if you learn this there may be an empirical element Once learned you realize that this truth is mind dependent, independent on all sensory data , independent of the external world A priori  the are prior to experience  the verification is something other then empirical  Descartes said Learning generally in this revolution should seek knowledge  An empirical sentence is never true it is temporal truth ( it is finite  Mathematical statements/ truths are external  In order to be a revolutionist in Descartes times, he must explore the external forever; all learning must be like this  Mathematician this that truths are hieratical  Some truths have to be known before 2+2=3+1 How to prove 2+2= 4 and 3+1=4 Acxiem of Equality  things that equal the same things are both equal  This is a dependent truth, it is a self evident truth In order to acquire knowledge and most knowledge is dependent that the process of obtaining knowledge is hierarchal, before you can do mathematics you must know the first principles We must find the first principals Descartes Meditations are only designed to see the first principles Page in course kit 210-211 Pg. 210- There are 2 kinds of logic one by Aristotle and other by Descartes Aristotelian Logic of Descartes ALL PEOPLE ARE GOING TO DIE,  Premise SCORATES IS A MAN SCORATIES IS MORTAL Syntactical exercise The conclusion of the argument teaches us nothing new just teaches us how to st connect the 1 statement to the conclusion No new logic can be learned by Aristotelian logic Metaphysics contains the first principles of human knowledge The method of mediation is the method of regular Descartes says the method of mediation is not the method of reguali The mediations is concerned with the first principles of metaphysics The logic of discovery, which Descartes develops in the reguli, has no place in the development in the meditations. The regalia cannot help us Metaphysics the axioms are Class 2 Humanities 1160 First Test Oct 24 Enlightment- Break with Past 1) Autonomous not tied to the teaching of the church Medieval period theology is supreme Enlightment period no reliance on church teachings  Because of this he talks about that this is nobody’s god In the early modern period philosophy can judge theology 2) Medieval period theology Theocentric Enlightment period the focus is on scientific methods /study of Man  ecoctric Casualty  make something change it or destroy it 3) Previous learning Some truths, each claim of a truth had to be examined on its own Unlike their medieval counter parts , that there is much that we don't know 4) Rethinking of who people are/ there is a reexamination of who we think we are Causal Explanation Goes back to Aristotle, says there are four types of causes 1) Bricks, motor material cause (ex milio) 2) Brick layer  efficient cause (How?) Pushes, Your view everything is a mechanistic view of the world If you believe this you must also believe that there is no role In scientific explanation for God 3) Have a plan / Blue print Formal Cause 4) Purpose Final Cause (Medieval thinkers) (Why?) He said in order to build house you would need things like bricks motor and so on They said ex milio means out of nothing to nothing Medieval thinkers believe that god creating everything, ( Why? ) , everything is pulled to the final stage Model for the regula is mathematical , not concern of proviting it all Indubitable It is true form start to finish within the regalia the certainty of aromatic geometry is never questioned What makes ther certianity of mathamatics 1) Errorfree errors-> incomplete data hasty 2) “An object such as we require” Pure and uncomplicated My shirt is white verified through the senses Modality of the claim is actuality It is truth is learned throught the senses the object of change is not true, it can be changed the colour. The angles of an isosceles triangle cannot be changed through the senses Descartes’s concludes from this is that the mathematician is no in fact studying empirical objects Innate So pure and uncomplicated Objects are pure is they do come from the senses ( non censored) Therefore there is not complete from or an imperial object An isosceles it is impossible to add to or take away from this triangle , the object is what it is Descartes says there is no error possible, as long as you have it Fixed Natures A blacksmith would beginning with primitive tools, they will use these tolls to make fashion better tools. Use what the mathematician gave us to The mind contains some tools that are needed to prove Rules 1-4( taking and building primitive tools) 5-12( taking those primitive tolls and developing them further) Regale , Descartes’s is indubitable, paradigm fall learning Meditations : he intends an overhaul of all learning Med 1and 3 he giving competitive reading he tries to says that mathematics is dubitable Pg 220 Reasons for doubting mathematics 1) Therefore psylogical irrisitbailty is not a truth of matamatics Why mathematics is dubitable? 1. 2. He has to power to deceive us in mathematics 3. 4. Mathematics deals with the mind; they do not depend on physical objects The differences between the enlightment period and medieval period? The main differences shift has been made from theocentric knowledge to egocentric. In the enlightment period they were more concerned with nature. In the medieval period they were concerned with metaphysics and God, beyond nature. Philosophy judges theology in the enlightment period. Their were academics tied to the church . In the medieval period the forms of study was aristotial logic. In the enlightment period Descartes proposed the period of . Ancient (Socrates, Platogood, Aristotle matter he was dealing with cosmos New Mod/ Enlightment period; self; Man The human being is the only being that is IF there is no god, then we are selves are not perfect and can perfect understand. Descartes talks about why 3 reason why math is dubitable. In addition to that Descartes takes about Principles of evidence Class 3 Monday October 3, 2011 Page 4 to 5 Inference or drawing conclusion in math can’t be faulty He points out error is always due to the reasoner who does the thing wrong, never in the faculty of reading Object in mathematics is pure and uncomplicated  he means it is not based on the senses, objects of mathematics are innate Objects cannot be altered, ex. Isosceles triangle cannot be though of without base 90 degree angles  In mathematics it should be possible to attain certainty and truth Faculties of Knowledge Page 7 Faculaty 1. Intuition 2. Deduction  series on intuition that Things that are related are called relate Figure/extension Motion/donation Things that equal to the same thing are equal to each other is an example form deduction 2+2=4 3+1=4 2+2=3+1 Memory never produces certainty, it is incomplete with certainty and indubability “You go over it time and time again until you have it all in your mind at once” “Intuition is more certain the Induction “ Meditations –Mathematics 3 reasons for doubting mathematics page 220 principles 5 1. 7+5+2=14/ 7+5+2=15, Certainty as it is understood by the right answer The person who gets the wrong answers finds that
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